13816613858
敬业·专业·专注
程序正义·证据裁判·疑罪从无
任何人在被证明有罪前,皆应被视为无辜。
网站首页 > 英文版Criminal Law > Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China (2012 Amendment) 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法(2012修正)(英文版)
查看详细本站律师

杨佰林律师

   杨佰林律师,北京京都(上海)律师事务所合伙人,刑事部主任,上海律协刑事委员会委员,华东政法大学硕士,山东人。至今律师执业十五余年,专注于经济犯罪、职务犯罪、金融证券领域犯罪的刑事辩护,曾为多名职务犯罪、经济犯罪嫌疑人作无罪辩护,最终使得数案件改判。擅长通过不同角度剖析案件、运用证据,锻造了严谨、扎实的辩护风格,辩护经验丰富。
   公正是法律的生命线,刑辩律师是国家推进司法公正征途中的筑路石子,是法治天平的捍卫者。
北京京都(上海)律师事务所 
地址:上海市南京西路580号南证大厦3903A室
Email: 13816613858@163.com   
电话:13816613858

Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China (2012 Amendment) 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法(2012修正)(英文版)


【Title】Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China (2012 Amendment)

Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Adopted at the 2nd Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress on July 1, 1979; amended for the first time in accordance with the Decision on Amending the Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the 4th Session of the Eighth National People’s Congress on March 17, 1996; and amended for the second time in accordance with the Decision on Amending the Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the 5th Session of the Eleventh National People’s Congress on March 14, 2012)
Table of Contents
Part One: General Provisions
Chapter I: Objectives and Basic Principles
Chapter II: Jurisdiction
Chapter III: Disqualification
Chapter IV: Defense and Representation
Chapter V: Evidence
Chapter VI: Compulsory Measures
Chapter VII: Incidental Civil Actions
Chapter VIII: Periods and Service of Process
Chapter IX: Other Provisions
Part Two: Opening a Case, Criminal Investigation, and Initiation of Public Prosecution
Chapter I: Opening a Case
Chapter II: Criminal Investigation
Section 1: General Rules
Section 2: Interrogation of Criminal Suspects
Section 3: Interviewing Witnesses
Section 4: Crime Scene Investigation and Examination
Section 5: Search
Section 6: Seizure and Impoundment of Physical Evidence and Documentary Evidence
Section 7: Forensic Identification and Evaluation
Section 8: Technical Investigation Measures
Section 9: Wanted Notices
Section 10: Close of Criminal Investigation
Section 11: Criminal Investigation of Cases Directly Accepted by People’s Procuratorates
Chapter III: Initiation of Public Prosecution
Part Three: Trial
Chapter I: Trial Organizations
Chapter II: Procedures at First Instance
Section 1: Cases of Public Prosecution
Section 2: Cases of Private Prosecution
Section 3: Summary Procedures
Chapter III: Procedures at Second Instance
Chapter IV: Procedures for Review of Death Sentences
Chapter V: Trial Supervision Procedures
Part Four: Execution
Part Five: Special Procedures
Chapter I: Procedures for Juvenile Criminal Cases
Chapter II: Procedures for Public Prosecution Cases Where Parties Have Reached Settlement
Chapter III: Confiscation Procedures for Illegal Income in Cases Where a Criminal Suspect or Defendant Escapes or Dies
Chapter IV: Procedures for Involuntary Medical Treatment of Mental Patients Legally Exempted from Criminal Liability
Supplementary Provisions
Part One: General Provisions
Chapter I: Objectives and Basic Principles
Article 1 To ensure correct enforcement of the Criminal Law, punish crimes, protect the people, protect national security and public security, and maintain the order of socialist society, this Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution.
Article 2 The objectives of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China are to ensure the accurate and timely finding of criminal facts and correct application of law, punish criminals, ensure that innocent people are not incriminated, raise citizens’ awareness of abiding by law and combating crimes, safeguard the socialist legal system, respect and protect human rights, protect the personal rights, property rights, democratic rights, and other rights of citizens, and ensure smooth socialist construction.
Article 3 Public security authorities are responsible for criminal investigation, detention, execution of arrest warrants, and interrogation in criminal cases. People’s Procuratorates are responsible for procuratorial supervision, approval of arrests, investigation of cases directly accepted by procuratorial authorities, and initiation of public prosecution. People’s Courts are responsible for trial and sentencing. Except as otherwise provided for by law, no other authority, organization, or individual shall exercise such powers.
In criminal procedures, people’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities must strictly abide by this Law and relevant provisions of other laws.
Article 4 National security authorities shall, in accordance with law, handle criminal cases regarding compromising national security and perform the same functions as those of public security authorities.
Article 5 People’s courts shall exercise judicial powers independently in accordance with law, and people’s procuratorates shall exercise procuratorial powers independently in accordance with law, without interference by any government authority, social organization, or individual.
Article 6 In criminal procedures, people’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities must rely on the masses and base their activities on facts and law. Law applies equally to all citizens, and no privilege is allowed before law.
Article 7 In criminal procedures, people’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities shall, according to their division of functions, coordinate and check each other to ensure correct and effective enforcement of law.
Article 8 People’s procuratorates shall conduct legal supervision over criminal procedure in accordance with law.
Article 9 Citizens of all nationalities shall have the right to use their native languages in litigation. People’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities shall provide interpretation for litigation participants who are not familiar with the commonly used local language.
In a region where an ethnic minority concentrates or multiple ethnic groups live together, interrogation and trial shall be conducted in the commonly used local language, and sentences, notices, and other documents shall be issued in the commonly used local language.
Article 10 After trial by a people’s court of second instance, a case is closed.
Article 11 People’s courts shall hear cases in open court, except as otherwise provided for by this Law. A defendant shall have the right to defense, and a people’s court shall have the duty to ensure that a defendant acquires defense.
Article 12 No person shall be found guilty without being judged so by a people’s court in accordance with law.
Article 13 In trying cases, people’s courts shall apply the people’s assessor system in accordance with this Law.
Article 14 People’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities shall protect the defense right and other procedural rights legally enjoyed by criminal suspects, defendants, and other litigation participants.
Litigation participants shall have the right to file accusations against judges, prosecutors, and investigators who infringe upon their procedural rights or inflict personal insult on them.
Article 15 Under any of the following circumstances, a person shall not be subject to criminal liability, and if any criminal procedure has been initiated against such a person, the case shall be dismissed, a non-prosecution decision shall be made, the trial shall be terminated, or the person shall be acquitted:
(1) the circumstances of the alleged conduct are obviously minor, causing no serious harm, and the alleged conduct is therefore not deemed a crime;
(2) the time limitation for criminal prosecution has expired;
(3) exemption of criminal punishment has been granted in a special amnesty decree;
(4) the alleged crime is handled only upon a complaint in accordance with the Criminal Law, but there is no such a complaint or the complaint has been withdrawn;
(5) the criminal suspect or defendant dies; or
(6) the person is otherwise exempted by law from criminal liability.
Article 16 Where a foreigner commits a crime and shall be subject to criminal liability, this Law shall apply.
Where a foreigner with diplomatic privileges and immunities commits a crime and shall be subject to criminal liability, the case shall be resolved through diplomatic channels.
Article 17 In accordance with the international treaties which the People’s Republic of China has concluded or acceded to or under the principle of reciprocity, the judicial authorities of China and a foreign country may request judicial assistance from each other in criminal matters.
Chapter II: Jurisdiction
Article 18 Investigation of criminal cases shall be conducted by public security authorities, except as otherwise provided for by law.
Cases regarding a crime of embezzlement or bribery, malfeasance by a state employee, or violation of a citizen’s personal rights, such as false imprisonment, extortion of confessions by torture, circumvention for retaliation, or illegal search, or a citizen’s democratic rights by an employee of a government authority by taking advantage of his or her functions shall be opened and investigated by people’s procuratorates. Any other significant case regarding a crime committed by an employee of a government authority by taking advantage of his or her functions, which requires direct acceptance by a people’s procuratorate, may be opened and investigated by the people’s procuratorate upon a decision of the people’s procuratorate at or above the provincial level.
Cases of private prosecution shall be directly accepted by people’s courts.
Article 19 A basic people’s court shall have jurisdiction over ordinary criminal cases as a court of first instance, except those under the jurisdiction of the people’s court at a higher level as provided for by this Law.
Article 20 An intermediate people’s court shall have jurisdiction over the following criminal cases as a court of first instance:
(1) a case regarding compromising national security or terrorist activities; and
(2) a case regarding a crime punishable by life imprisonment or death penalty.
Article 21 A higher people’s court shall have jurisdiction over criminal cases which are significant in a province (or an autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government) as a court of first instance.
Article 22 The Supreme People’s Court shall have jurisdiction over criminal cases which are significant in the entire nation as a court of first instance.
Article 23 When necessary, a people’s court at a higher level may try a criminal case under the jurisdiction of a people’s court at a lower level as a court of first instance; and when a people’s court at a lower level as a court of first instance deems that a criminal case is significant or complicated and needs to be tried by a people’s court at a higher level, it may request that the case be transferred to the people’s court at the next higher level for trial.
Article 24 A criminal case shall be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court at the place of crime. Where it is more appropriate for the case to be tried by the people’s court at the place of residence of the defendant, the case may be under the jurisdiction of the people’s court at the place of residence of the defendant.
Article 25 Where two or more people’s courts at the same level all have jurisdiction over a case, the case shall be tried by the people’s court which first accepts the case. When necessary, the case may be transferred for trial by the people’s court at the principal place of crime.
Article 26 A people’s court at a higher level may designate that a people’s court at a lower level try a case over which jurisdiction is unclear or designate that a people’s court at a lower level transfer a case to another people’s court for trial. 
Article 27 The jurisdiction of specialized people’s courts shall be provided for separately.
Chapter III: Disqualification
Article 28 Under any of the following circumstances, a judge, prosecutor, or investigator shall voluntarily disqualify himself or herself, and a party or his or her legal representative shall have the right to request the disqualification thereof:
(1) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator is a party to the case or a close relative of a party to the case;
(2) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator or his or her close relative is an interested party to the case;
(3) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator once served as a witness, identification or evaluation expert, defender, or litigation representative in the case; or
(4) the judge, prosecutor, or investigator has any other relationship with a party, which may affect the just handling of the case.
Article 29 Judges, prosecutors, and investigators shall not accept treats and gifts from the parties and their agents and shall meet the parties and their agents in violation of relevant legal provisions.
A judge, prosecutor, or investigator who violates the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to legal liability. A party or his or her legal representative shall have the right to request disqualification thereof.
Article 30 The disqualification of a judge, prosecutor, or investigator shall be decided respectively by the president of a people’s court, the president of a people’s procuratorate, and the chief of a public security authority; the disqualification of the president of a people’s court shall be decided by the judicial committee of the court; and the disqualification of the president of a people’s procuratorate or the chief of a public security authority at the same level shall be decided by the procuratorial committee of the people’s procuratorate.
Before a decision is made on the disqualification of an investigator, the investigator shall not suspend the investigation of the case.
Against a decision that dismisses a request for disqualification, the party or his or her legal representative may apply for reconsideration once.
Article 31 The disqualification provisions of this Chapter shall also apply to court clerks, interpreters, and identification or evaluation experts.
Defenders and litigation representatives may request disqualification and apply for reconsideration according to the provisions of this Chapter.
Chapter IV: Defense and Representation
Article 32 In addition to defending himself or herself, a criminal suspect or defendant may retain one or two defenders. The following persons may serve as defenders:
(1) a lawyer;
(2) a person recommended by a people’s organization or the employer of a criminal suspect or defendant; and
(3) a guardian, relative, or friend of a criminal suspect or defendant.
A person who is serving a criminal sentence or whose personal freedom is deprived of or restricted in accordance with law shall not serve as a defender.
Article 33 A criminal suspect shall have the right to retain a defender from the day when the criminal suspect is interrogated by a criminal investigation authority for the first time or from the day when a compulsory measure is taken against the criminal suspect; during the period of criminal investigation, a criminal suspect may only retain a lawyer as a defender. A defendant shall have the right to retain a defender at any time.
When a criminal investigation authority interrogates a criminal suspect for the first time or takes a compulsory measure against the criminal suspect, it shall inform the criminal suspect that the criminal suspect has the right to retain a defender. A people’s procuratorate shall, within three days after receiving the case file transferred for examination and prosecution, inform a criminal suspect that the criminal suspect has the right to retain a defender. A people’s court shall, within three days after accepting a case, inform a defendant that the defendant has the right to retain a defender. If a criminal suspect or defendant in custody files a request for retaining a defender, the people’s court, people’s procuratorate, and public security authority shall convey such a request in a timely manner.
For a criminal suspect or defendant in custody, his or her guardian or close relative may retain a defender on his or her behalf.
After accepting representation of a criminal suspect or defendant, a defender shall inform the case-handling authority in a timely manner.
Article 34 Where a criminal suspect or defendant has not retained a defender for financial hardship or other reasons, the criminal suspect or defendant or his or her close relative may file an application with a legal aid agency. If the legal aid conditions are met, the legal aid agency shall designate a lawyer to defend him or her.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant suffers vision, hearing, or speech impairment or is a mental patient who has not completely lost the ability to recognize or control his or her behavior, if he or she has not retained a defender, the people’s court, people’s procuratorate, and public security authority shall notify a legal aid agency to designate a lawyer to defend him or her.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant who may be sentenced to life imprisonment or death penalty has not retained a defender, the people’s court, people’s procuratorate, and public security authority shall notify a legal aid agency to designate a lawyer to defend him or her.
Article 35 The duties of a defender are to present materials and opinions regarding the innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant, pettiness of a crime, or mitigation of or exemption from criminal liability and protect the procedural rights and other lawful rights and interests of a criminal suspect or defendant, in accordance with facts and law.
Article 36 During the period of criminal investigation, a defense lawyer may provide legal assistance for a criminal suspect, file petitions and accusations on behalf of a criminal suspect, apply for modifying a compulsory measure, learn the charges against a criminal suspect and relevant case information from the criminal investigation authority, and offer opinions
Article 37 A defense lawyer may meet and communicate with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody. As permitted by the people’s court or people’s procuratorate, a defender other than a defense lawyer may also meet and communicate with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody. 
When a defense lawyer files a request for a meeting with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody on the basis of the lawyer’s practicing license, a certificate issued by the law firm, and a power of attorney or an official legal aid document, a jail shall arrange a meeting in a timely manner, no later than 48 hours after the request is filed.
Where a defense lawyer files a request during the period of criminal investigation for a meeting with a criminal suspect in custody who is suspected of compromising national security, terrorist activities, or extraordinarily significant bribery, the meeting shall be subject to the permission of the criminal investigation authority. In such a case, the criminal investigation authority shall issue a prior notice to the jail.
At a meeting with a criminal suspect or defendant in custody, a defense lawyer may learn relevant case information and provide legal advice and other services, and from the day when the case is transferred for examination and prosecution, may verify relevant evidence with the criminal suspect or defendant. A meeting between a defense lawyer and a criminal suspect or defendant shall not be monitored.
Where a defense lawyer meets or communicates with a criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement, paragraphs 1, 3 and 4 hereof shall apply.
Article 38 A defense lawyer may, from the day when the people’s procuratorate examines a case for prosecution, consult, extract, and duplicate case materials. As permitted by the people’s court or people’s procuratorate, a defender other than a defense lawyer may also consult, extract, and duplicate such materials.
Article 39 Where a defender believes that any evidence gathered by the public security authority or people’s procuratorate during the period of criminal investigation or examination and prosecution regarding the innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant or the pettiness of crime has not been submitted, the defender shall have the right to apply to the people’s procuratorate or people’s court for submission of such evidence.
Article 40 A defender shall inform the public security authority or people’s procuratorate in a timely manner of evidence gathered regarding a criminal suspect’s alibi or the fact that the criminal suspect has not attained the age for criminal liability or is a mental patient exempted from criminal liability
Article 41 A defense lawyer may gather information regarding a case from a witness or any other relevant entity or individual with the consent thereof, and may also apply to the people’s procuratorate or people’s court for gathering or submission of evidence or apply to the people’s court for notifying a witness to testify before court.
A defense lawyer may gather information regarding a case from a victim or his or her close relatives or a witness provided by a victim with the consent thereof and permission of the people’s procuratorate or people’s court.
Article 42 No defender or other person shall help a criminal suspect or defendant conceal, destroy, or forge evidence or make a false confession in collusion, intimidate or induce a witness into committing perjury, or otherwise interfere with the procedures of judicial authorities.
Whoever violates the preceding paragraph shall be subject to legal liability, and a defender suspected of a crime shall be handled by a criminal investigation authority other than the one handling the case in which the defender provides representation. If the defender is a lawyer, the law firm employing the lawyer or the bar association to which the lawyer belongs shall be informed in a timely manner.
Article 43 At trial, a defendant may refuse to continue retaining a defender and may retain another defender.
Article 44 A victim or his or her legal representative or close relative in a case of public prosecution or a party or his or her legal representative in an incidental civil action shall have the right to retain a litigation representative from the day when the case is transferred for examination and prosecution. A private prosecutor or his or her legal representative in a case of private prosecution or a party or his or her legal representative in an incidental civil action shall have the right to retain a litigation representative at any time.
A people’s procuratorate shall, within three days from the date of receiving the case file transferred for examination and prosecution, inform a victim and his or her legal representative or close relative and the parties and their legal representatives in an incidental civil action of their right to retain a litigation representative. A people’s court shall, within three days from the date of accepting a case of private prosecution, inform the private prosecutor and his or her legal representative and the parties and their legal representatives in an incidental civil action of their right to retain a litigation representative.
Article 45 Litigation representatives shall be retained by referrence to the provisions of Article 32 of this Law.
Article 46 A defense lawyer shall have the right to keep confidential the conditions and information regarding a client known in the practice of law. However, if knowing in the practice of law that a client or any other person is preparing for or is committing a crime compromising national security or public security or seriously damaging the personal safety of others, a defense lawyer shall inform a judicial authority in a timely manner.
Article 47 A defender or litigation representative who believes that a public security authority, a people’ procuratorate, a people’s court or any staff member thereof has impeded his or her exercise of procedural rights, shall have the right to file a petition or accusation with the people’s procuratorate at the same level or at the next higher level. The people’s procuratorate shall examine the petition or accusation in a timely manner and, if it is true, notify the authority involved to make correction.
Chapter V: Evidence
Article 48 All materials that may be used to prove the facts of a case are evidence.
Evidence includes:
(1) physical evidence;
(2) documentary evidence;
(3) witness statement;
(4) victim statement;
(5) confession and defense of a criminal suspect or defendant;
(6) expert opinion;
(7) transcripts of crime scene investigation, examination, identification, and investigative reenactment; and
(8) audio-visual recordings and electronic data.
Evidence must be verified before being used as a basis for deciding a case.
Article 49 The burden of proof of guilty of the defendant in a public prosecution case shall fall on the people’s procuratorate, while that in a private prosecution case shall fall on the private prosecutor.
Article 50 Judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators must, under legal procedures, gather various kinds of evidence that can prove the guilt or innocence of a criminal suspect or defendant and the gravity of crime. It shall be strictly prohibited to extort confessions by torture, gather evidence by threat, enticement, deceit, or other illegal means, or force anyone to commit self-incrimination. It must be ensured that all citizens who are involved in a case or have information regarding a case can objectively and fully provide evidence, and, except under special circumstances, such citizens may be required to assist investigation.
Article 51 A written request of a public security authority for approval of an arrest, an indictment of a people’s procuratorate, and a sentence of people’s court must be consistent with the truth. Where truth is withheld intentionally, liability shall be investigated.
Article 52 A people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority shall have the authority to gather or require submission of evidence from the relevant entities and individuals. The relevant entities and individuals shall provide true evidence.
Physical evidence, documentary evidence, audio-visual recordings, electronic data, and other evidence gathered by an administrative authority in the process of law enforcement and case investigation may be used as evidence in criminal procedures.
Evidence involving any state secret, trade secret, or personal privacy shall be kept confidential.
Whoever forges, conceals, or destroys evidence must be subject to legal liability, without regard to which party owns the evidence.
Article 53 In deciding each case, a people’s court shall focus on evidence, investigation, and research, and credence shall not be readily provided for confessions. A defendant shall not be convicted and sentenced to a criminal punishment merely based on the defendant’s confession without other evidence; a defendant may be convicted and sentenced to a criminal punishment based on hard and sufficient evidence even without his or her confession.
Evidence is hard and sufficient when the following conditions are met:
(1) All facts for conviction and sentencing are supported by evidence;
(2) All evidence used to decide a case has been verified under legal procedures; and
(3) All facts found are beyond reasonable doubt based on all evidence of the case.
Article 54 A confession of a criminal suspect or defendant extorted by torture or obtained by other illegal means and a witness or victim statement obtained by violence, threat, or other illegal means shall be excluded. If any physical or documentary evidence is not gathered under the statutory procedure, which may seriously affect justice, correction or justification shall be provided; otherwise, such evidence shall be excluded.
If it is discovered during the criminal investigation, examination and prosecution, or trial of a case that any evidence shall be excluded, such evidence shall be excluded and not be used as a basis for a prosecution proposal, a prosecution decision, and a sentence.
Article 55 After receiving a report, accusation, or tip on any illegal obtainment of evidence by criminal investigators or after discovering any illegal obtainment of evidence by criminal investigators, a people’s procuratorate shall conduct investigation and verification. If it is confirmed that evidence has been illegally obtained, the people’s procuratorate shall provide an opinion on correction; if any crime is committed, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with law.
Article 56 Where, in a court session, a judge believes that there may be any illegal obtainment of evidence as described in Article 54 of this Law, the judge shall conduct an investigation in court regarding the legality of obtainment of evidence.
A party or the defender or litigation representative thereof shall have the right to apply to a people’s court for excluding illegally obtained evidence. Relevant clues or materials shall be provided for an application for excluding illegally obtained evidence.
Article 57 During the investigation in court regarding the legality of obtainment of evidence, a people’s procuratorate shall prove the legality of obtainment of evidence.
If the existing evidentiary materials cannot prove the legality of obtainment of evidence, the people’s procuratorate may request the people’s court to notify relevant investigators or other persons to appear before court to explain; and the people’s court may notify relevant investigators or other persons to appear before court to explain. The relevant investigators or other persons may also file a request for appearing before court to explain. The relevant persons notified by the people’s court shall appear before court.
Article 58 Where, at trial, any illegal obtainment of evidence as described in Article 54 of this Law is confirmed or cannot be ruled out, the relevant evidence shall be excluded.
Article 59 A witness statement may be used as a basis for deciding a case only after it has been cross-examined in court by both sides, the public prosecutor and victim as one side and the defendant and defender as the other side, and verified. If a court discovers that a witness has committed perjury or concealed criminal evidence, the witness shall be handled in accordance with law.
Article 60 Any person who has information regarding a case shall have the obligation to testify.
A physically or mentally handicapped person or a minor who cannot distinguish between right and wrong or cannot correctly express themselves shall not serve as a witness.
Article 61 People’s courts, people’s procuratorates, and public security authorities shall ensure the safety of witnesses and their close relatives.
Whoever intimidates, insults, beats, or retaliates against a witness or his or her close relatives shall be subject to criminal liability in accordance with law if it constitutes a crime; or shall be subject to punishment in public security administration in accordance with law if it is not criminally punishable.
Article 62 Where a witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim testifies in a crime of compromising national security, a crime of terrorist activities, an organized crime of a gangland nature, or a drug crime, endangering the personal safety of the witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim or his or her close relatives, the people’s court, people’s procuratorate, and public security authority shall take one or more of the following protective measures:
(1) not disclosing his or her true personal information, such as name, residence address, and employer; 
(2) not exposing his or her look, true voice, and so on, when he or she takes the stand; 
(3) prohibiting particular persons from contacting the witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim and his or her close relatives; 
(4) providing special protection for his or her person and residence; and
(5) Other necessary protective measures.
Where a witness, identification or evaluation expert, or victim believes that his or her personal safety or that of his or her close relatives is endangered by his or her testimony in criminal procedures, he or she may request protection from the people’s court, people’s procuratorate, and public security authority.
The relevant entities and individuals shall cooperate with a people’s court, people’s procuratorate, or public security authority in taking protective measures in accordance with law.
Article 63 Subsidization shall be provided for the travel, board and lodging, and other expenses of a witness for performing the obligation to testify. Such subsidization shall be recorded under the operating expenditures of judicial authorities and ensured by the treasury of the government at the same level.
When a working witness testifies, his or her employer may not directly or indirectly deduct his or her salary, bonus, welfare, and other remuneration.
Chapter VI: Compulsory Measures
Article 64 A people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority may, according to the circumstances of a case, compel the appearance of, grant bail to, or decide residential confinement of a criminal suspect or defendant.
Article 65 A people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority may grant bail to a criminal suspect or defendant under any of the following circumstances:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to supervision without incarceration, limited incarceration, or an accessory penalty only; 
(2) the criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or a heavier penalty but will not cause danger to the society if granted bail;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant suffers a serious illness and cannot live by himself or herself or is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breastfeeding her own baby and will not cause danger to the society if granted bail; or
(4) The term of custody of the criminal suspect or defendant has expired but the case has not been closed, and a bail is necessary.
Bail shall be executed by a public security authority.
Article 66 Where a people’s court, a people’s procuratorates, and a public security authority decide to grant bail to a criminal suspect or defendant, it shall order the criminal suspect or defendant to provide a surety or pay a bond.
Article 67 A surety must meet the following conditions:
(1) not involved in the case;
(2) able to perform a surety’s obligations;
(3) enjoying political rights and not restricted in personal freedom; and
(4) having a fixed residence and steady income.
Article 68 A surety shall perform the following obligations:
(1) supervising the bailed person in complying with the provisions of Article 69 of this Law; and
 
(2) after discovering that the bailed person may commit or has committed a violation of Article 69 of this Law, reporting it to the execution authority in a timely manner.
Where the bailed person has committed a violation of Article 69 of this Law and the surety fails to perform surety obligations, the surety shall be fined, and if any crime is committed, criminal liability shall be investigated in accordance with law.
Article 69 A bailed criminal suspect or defendant shall comply with the following provisions:
(1) not leaving the city or county where he or she resides without the approval of the execution authority;
(2) reporting any change of his or her residence address, employer, or contact information to the execution authority within 24 hours of such change; 
(3) appearing before court in a timely manner when summoned;
(4) not interfering in any way with the testimony of witnesses; and
(5) not destroying or forging evidence or making a false confession in collusion.
Based on the circumstances of a case, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority may order a bailed criminal suspect or defendant to comply with one or more of the following provisions:
(1) not entering particular places;
(2) not meeting or communicate with particular persons; 
(3) not engaging in particular activities; and
(4) delivering his or her passport and other international travel credentials and driver’s license to the execution authority for preservation.
Where a bailed criminal suspect or defendant violates any provision of the preceding two paragraphs, if a bond has been paid, part or all of the bond shall be forfeited, and, based on the actual circumstances, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be ordered to make a statement of repentance, pay a bond or provide a surety again, or be placed under residential confinement or arrested.
Where any violation of the bail provisions entails an arrest, the criminal suspect or defendant may be detained first.
Article 70 The authority deciding on a bail shall decide the amount of a bond after fully considering the need to ensure normal legal proceedings, the danger of the person to be bailed to the society, the nature and circumstances of the case, the gravity of the possible punishment, the financial condition of the person to be bailed, and other factors.
The person providing a bond shall deposit the bond into a special account at a bank designated by the execution authority.
Article 71 Where a criminal suspect or defendant has not violated the provisions of Article 69 of this Law during the period of waiting for trial on bail, he or she may receive a refund of the bond at the bank on the basis of a notice of termination of waiting for trial on bail or relevant legal instrument, at the end of the period of waiting for trial on bail.
Article 72 Under any of the following circumstances, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority may place a criminal suspect or defendant who meets the arrest conditions under residential confinement:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant suffers a serious illness and cannot live by himself or herself;
(2) the criminal suspect or defendant is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breastfeeding her own baby;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant is the sole supporter of a person who cannot live by himself or herself; 
(4) considering the special circumstances of the case or as needed for handling the case, residential confinement is more appropriate; or
(5) the term of custody has expired but the case has not been closed, and residential confinement is necessary.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant meets the conditions for bail but is neither able to provide a surety nor able to pay a bond, he or she may be placed under residential confinement.
Residential confinement shall be executed by a public security authority.
Article 73 Residential confinement shall be executed at the residence of a criminal suspect or defendant; or may be executed at a designated residence if the criminal suspect or defendant has no fixed residence. Where execution of residential confinement at the residence of a criminal suspect or defendant in a case regarding compromising national security, terrorist activities, or extraordinarily significant bribery may obstruct criminal investigation, it may be executed at a designated residence with the approval of the people’s procuratorate or public security authority at the next higher level. However, residential confinement may not be executed at a place of custody or a place specially used for handling cases.
If residential confinement is executed at a designated residence, the family of the person under residential confinement shall be notified within 24 hours after residential confinement is executed, unless such notification is impossible.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement retains a defender, the provisions of Article 33 of this Law shall apply.
People’s procuratorates shall oversee the legality of decisions and execution of residential confinement at a designated residence.
Article 74 The term of residential confinement at a designated residence shall decrease the term of punishment. For a sentence of supervision without incarceration, one day of residential confinement equals one day of the term of punishment; for a sentence of limited incarceration or fixed-term imprisonment, two days of residential confinement equals one day of the term of punishment.
Article 75 A criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement shall comply with the following provisions:
(1) not leaving the residence where residential confinement is executed without the approval of the execution authority;
(2) not meeting or communicating with others without the approval of the execution authority;
(3) appearing before court in a timely manner when summoned;
(4) not interfering in any way with the testimony of witnesses;
(5) not destroying or forging evidence or making a false confession in collusion; and
(6) delivering his or her passport and other international travel credentials and driver’s license to the execution authority for preservation.
A criminal suspect or defendant under residential confinement who seriously violates any provision of the preceding paragraph may be arrested; and if arrest is necessary, the criminal suspect or defendant may be detained first.
Article 76 Execution authorities may oversee criminal suspects or defendants under residential confinement regarding their compliance with residential confinement provisions by electronic monitoring, random inspection, and other surveillance means; and during the period of criminal investigation, may monitor the communications of criminal suspects under residential confinement.
Article 77 The period of bail granted by a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority to a criminal suspect or defendant shall not exceed 12 months; and the period of residential confinement shall not exceed 6 months.
During the period of bail or residential confinement, the investigation, prosecution, and trial of a case shall not be suspended. If it is discovered that a criminal suspect or defendant shall not be subject to criminal liability or when the period of bail or residential confinement expires, the bail or residential confinement shall be terminated in a timely manner. The bailed person or person under residential confinement and relevant entities shall be notified of the termination in a timely manner.
Article 78 The arrest of a criminal suspect or defendant must be subject to the approval of a people’s procuratorate or a decision of a people’s court and be executed by a public security authority.
Article 79 Where there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to imprisonment or a heavier punishment, if residential confinement is insufficient to prevent any of the following dangers to society, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be arrested:
(1) the criminal suspect or defendant may commit a new crime;
(2) there is an actual danger to national security, public security, or social order;
(3) the criminal suspect or defendant may destroy or forge evidence, interfere with the testimony of a witness, or make a false confession in collusion;
(4) the criminal suspect or defendant may retaliate against a victim, informant, or accuser; or
(5) the criminal suspect or defendant attempts to commit suicide or escape.
Where there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of 10 years or a heavier punishment or there is evidence to prove the facts of a crime and a criminal suspect or defendant who once committed an intentional crime or has not been identified may be sentenced to imprisonment or a heavier punishment, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be arrested.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant waiting for trial on bail or under residential confinement seriously violates the provisions on bail or residential confinement, the criminal suspect or defendant may be arrested.
Article 80 Under any of the following circumstances, a public security authority may first detain a person who is committing a crime or is a major criminal suspect:
(1) the person is preparing to commit a crime, is committing a crime, or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
(2) a victim or an eyewitness identifies the person as the one committing the crime;
(3) criminal evidence is discovered from the person’s body or residence;
(4) the person attempts to commit suicide or escape after committing a crime or is fugitive;
(5) the person may destroy or forge evidence or make a false confession in collusion;
(6) the identify of the person is unknown because the person refuses to disclose his or her true name and residence address; or
(7) the person is a strongly suspected of committing crimes from place to place, repeatedly, or in a gang.
Article 81 Where a public security authority executes detention or arrest of a person in a different place, it shall notify the public security authority at the place of residence of the detainee or arrestee, and the public security authority at the place of residence of the detainee or arrestee shall provide cooperation.
Article 82 Under any of the following circumstances, a person may be immediately tackled by any citizen to a public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court for handling:
(1) the person is committing a crime or is discovered immediately after committing a crime;
(2) the person is wanted;
(3) the person has escaped from incarceration; and
(4) the person is being pursued for capture.
Article 83 When detaining a person, a public security authority must produce a detention warrant.
After a person is detained, the detainee shall be immediately transferred to a jail for custody, no later than 24 hours thereafter. The family of a detainee shall be notified within 24 hours after detention, unless such notification is impossible or such notification may obstruct criminal investigation in a case regarding compromising national security or terrorist activities. However, once such a situation that obstructs criminal investigation disappears, the family of the detainee shall be immediately notified.
Article 84 A public security authority shall interrogate a detainee within 24 hours after detention. If it is discovered that the person should not have been detained, the person must be immediately released, and a certificate of release shall be issued to the person.
Article 85 A public security authority shall prepare a written request for approval of arrest of a criminal suspect, which shall be submitted along with the case file and evidence to the people’s procuratorate at the same level for examination and approval. When necessary, the people’s procuratorate may send procurators to participate in the public security authority’s discussion of a significant case.
Article 86 During the examination and approval of an arrest request, a people’s procuratorate may interrogate the criminal suspect; and, under any of the following circumstances, must interrogate the criminal suspect:
(1) it has any doubt on whether the arrest conditions are met;
(2) the criminal suspect requests a statement before prosecutors; or
(3) any gross violation of law may have occurred during criminal investigation.
During the examination and approval of an arrest request, a people’s procuratorate may interview a witness and other litigation participants and hear the opinion of a defense lawyer; and, if a defense lawyer files a request for presenting an opinion, shall hear the opinion of the defense lawyer.
Article 87 A people’s procuratorate’s approval of arrest of a criminal suspect shall be subject to the decision of the president of the people’s procuratorate. Significant cases shall be submitted to the procuratorial committee for discussion and decision.
Article 88 After examining a case where a public security authority has filed a request for approval of arrest, a people’s procuratorate shall, according to the actual circumstances of the case, make a decision to approve or disapprove the arrest. If the people’s procuratorate decides to approve the arrest, the public security authority shall execute the decision immediately and notify the people’s procuratorate regarding execution in a timey manner. If the people’s procuratorate decides to disapprove the arrest, it shall explain the reasons for disapproval and, when necessary, notify at the same time the public security authority to conduct a supplementary investigation.
Article 89 Deeming that a detainee needs to be arrested, a public security authority shall, within three days after detention, file an arrest request with the people’s procuratorate for examination and approval. Under special circumstances, the time limit for filing such a request may be extended for one to four days.
For a person strongly suspected of committing crimes from place to place, repeatedly, or in a gang, the time limit for filing an arrest request for examination and approval may be extended to 30 days.
A people’s procuratorate shall make a decision to approve or disapprove an arrest within seven days after receiving a written request for approval of arrest from a public security authority. If the people’s procuratorate disapproves the arrest, the public security authority shall release the detainee immediately after receiving a notice regarding the decision and notify the people’s procuratorate regarding execution in a timely manner. If further investigation is necessary and the conditions for bail or residential confinement are met, the criminal suspect shall be released on bail or placed under residential confinement in accordance with law.
Article 90 Deeming that a decision of a people’s procuratorate to disapprove an arrest is erroneous, a public security authority may request reconsideration but must immediately release the detainee. If the public security authority’s opinion is not accepted, it may request a review by the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level. The people’s procuratorate at the higher level shall immediately review the case, decide whether or not to modify the original disapproval decision and notify the people’s procuratorate at the lower level and the public security authority to execute its decision.
Article 91 When arresting a person, a public security authority must produce an arrest warrant.
After a person is arrested, the arrestee shall be immediately transferred to a jail for custody. The family of the arrestee shall be notified within 24 hours after arrest, unless such notification is impossible.
Article 92 A people’s court or a people’s procuratorate must interrogate a person arrested on its decision or a public security authority must interrogate a person arrested with the approval of a people’s procuratorate within 24 hours after the arrest. If it is discovered that the person should not have been arrested, the person must be immediately released, and a certificate of release shall be issued to the person.
Article 93 After arresting a criminal suspect or defendant, a people’s procuratorate shall continue to examine the necessity of custody. If custody is no longer necessary, it shall suggest a release of the arrestee or modification of the compulsory measure for the arrestee. The relevant authority shall notify the people’s procuratorate of the handling result within 10 days.
Article 94 Where a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority discovers that the compulsory measure taken against a criminal suspect or defendant is inappropriate, the measure shall be revoked or modified in a timely manner. A public security authority which releases an arrestee or replaces arrest with another compulsory measure shall notify the people’s procuratorate originally approving the arrest.
Article 95 A criminal suspect or defendant or his or her legal representative, close relative, or defender shall have the right to apply for modifying a compulsory measure. A people’s court, people’s procuratorate, or public security authority shall make a decision within three days after receiving such an application; and, if a disapproval decision is made, the applicant shall be informed of the decision and reasons for disapproval.
Article 96 Where a case involving a criminal suspect or defendant in custody cannot be closed within the period of custody during criminal investigation, period of examination and prosecution, or period of trial at first instance or second instance as set forth in this Law, the criminal suspect or defendant shall be released; or, if further investigation or trial is necessary, may be bailed or placed under residential confinement.
Article 97 When the statutory term of a compulsory measure taken against a criminal suspect or defendant expires, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority shall release the criminal suspect or defendant, terminate a bail or residential confinement, or legally modify a compulsory measure. A criminal suspect or defendant or his or her legal representative, close relative, or defender shall have the right to require termination of a compulsory measure taken by a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority when the term of the compulsory measure expires.
Article 98 Where, during the examination and approval of an arrest request, a people’s procuratorate discovers any illegal investigative activities of a public security authority, it shall notify the public security authority to make correction, and the public security authority shall notify the people’s procuratorate regarding correction.
Chapter VII: Incidental Civil Actions
Article 99 Where a victim has suffered any material loss as a result of the defendant’s crime, the victim shall have the right to institute an incidental civil action during criminal procedures. If the victim is dead or has lost capacity of conduct, his or her legal representative or close relative shall have the right to institute an incidental civil action.
Where state property or collective property has suffered any loss, a people’s procuratorate may institute an incidental civil action along with a public prosecution.
Article 100 A people’s court may, when necessary, take a preservative measure to seize, impound, or freeze the property of a defendant. In an incidental civil action, the plaintiff or the people’s procuratorate may apply to the people’s court for taking a preservative measure. Where a people’s court takes a preservative measure, the relevant provisions of the Civil Procedure Law shall apply.
Article 101 When trying an incidental civil case, a people’s court may conduct mediation or render a judgment or ruling based on the material loss.
Article 102 An incidental civil action shall be heard concurrently with the criminal case. An incidental civil action may be heard by the same judicial organization after the trial of the criminal case only to prevent the excessive delay of the trial of the criminal case.
Chapter VIII: Periods and Service of Process
Article 103 Periods are counted by hour, day, or month.
The starting hour or day of a period shall not be counted in the period.
A statutory period shall not include travel time. An appeal or other document that has been mailed before the statutory period expires shall not be deemed past due.
Where the last day of a period falls on a holiday, the expiry date of the period shall be the first day after the holiday, but the custody period of a criminal suspect or defendant shall terminate on the expiry date and may not be extended for holidays.
Article 104 Where a party cannot meet a deadline for an irresistible reason or any other justifiable reason, the party may, within five days after the obstacle disappears, apply for continuing the procedure that should have been completed before the deadline.
A people’s court shall make a ruling to approve or disapprove an application as mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
Article 105 Summons, notices, and other court documents shall be served upon the addressee personally; or, if the addressee is absent, may be received on his or her behalf by an adult member of his or her family or a responsible person of his or her employer.
If the addressee or a recipient on his or her behalf refuses to receive or refuses to sign or seal such documents, the process server may request the addressee’s neighbors or other witnesses to be present, explain the situation to them, leave such documents at the addressee’s residence, record the fact of refusal and date of service on the service acknowledgment, and sign it, and such documents shall then be deemed served.
Chapter IX: Other Provisions
Article 106 For the purposes of this law:
(1) “criminal investigation” means the specialized investigation conducted and related compulsory measures taken in accordance with law by public security authorities and people’s procuratorates in handling cases.
(2) “party" means a victim, a private prosecutor, a criminal suspect, a defendant, or a plaintiff or defendant in an incidental civil action.
(3) “legal representative” means a parent, a foster parent, or a guardian of the represented person or a representative from a government authority or social organization with a duty to protect the person represented;
(4) “litigation participants” means the parties, legal representatives, litigation representatives, defenders, witnesses, identification or evaluation experts, and interpreters;
(5) "litigation representative" means a person employed by a victim or her or her legal representative or close relative in a case of public prosecution and by a private prosecutor or his or her legal representative in a case of private prosecution to participate in criminal procedures on his or her behalf or a person employed by a party or his or her legal representative in an incidental civil action to participate in civil procedures on his or her behalf.
(6) "close relatives" means a person’s husband or wife, father, mother, sons, daughters, and full siblings.
Part Two: Opening a Case, Criminal Investigation, and Initiation of Public Prosecution
Chapter I: Opening a Case
Article 107 A public security authority or a people’s procuratorate which discovers any facts of a crime or a criminal suspect shall open a case for criminal investigation according to its jurisdiction.
Article 108 Any entity or individual which discovers any facts of a crime or a criminal suspect shall have the right and the obligation to report the crime or criminal suspect to a public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court.
A victim shall have the right to report a crime which infringes upon his or her personal or property rights or accuse a criminal suspect of such a crime to a public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court.
A public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court shall accept all reports on crimes and criminal suspects and accusations. If a case is not under its jurisdiction, it shall transfer the case to the competent authority and notify the person reporting the crime or criminal suspect or accuser; and, if the case is not under its jurisdiction but emergency measures must be taken, it shall take emergency measures before transferring the case to the competent authority.
Where a person committing a crime voluntarily surrenders to a public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court, the provisions of paragraph 3 hereof shall apply.
Article 109 Reports on crimes and criminal suspects and accusations may be filed in writing or verbally. The personnel receiving verbal reports and accusations shall prepare transcripts, which shall be signed or sealed by the persons filing such reports and accusations after reading and confirmation.
The personnel receiving accusations and reports on criminal suspects shall explain to the persons filing accusations and reports the legal liability for filing a false accusation or report. However, an accusation or report which is inconsistent with facts or even wrong shall be strictly distinguished from a false accusation or report, as long as no fabrication of facts or forgery of evidence is involved.
A public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court shall ensure the safety of persons reporting crimes and criminal suspects, accusers, and their close relatives. If a person reporting a crime or criminal suspect or an accuser is reluctant to disclose to the public his or her name and report or accusation, such information shall be kept confidential.
Article 110 A people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority shall, according to its jurisdiction, promptly examine the materials regarding a reported crime or criminal suspect, an accusation, or a voluntary surrender. If it believes that there are any facts of a crime which require criminal investigation, it shall open a case; or, if it believes that there are no facts of a crime or the facts of a crime are obviously minor and require no criminal investigation, it shall not open a case but shall notify the accuser of the reasons for not opening a case. Against such a decision, the accuser may apply for reconsideration.
Article 111 Where a people’s procuratorate deems that a public security authority fails to open a case that shall be otherwise opened for criminal investigation, or a victim expresses to a people’s procuratorate the opinion that a public security authority fails to open a case that shall be otherwise opened for criminal investigation, the people’s procuratorate shall require the public security authority to state the reasons for not opening a case. If the people’s procuratorate deems that the reasons for not opening a case provided by the public security authority are unfounded, it shall notify the public security authority to open a case, and, after receiving the notice, the public security authority shall open a case.
Article 112 In a case of private prosecution, the victim shall have the right to institute an action directly in a people’s court. If the victim is dead or has lost his or her capacity of conduct, his or her legal representative or close relatives shall have the right to institute an action in the people’s court. The people’s court shall accept the case in accordance with law.
Chapter II: Criminal Investigation
Section 1: General Rules
Article 113 After opening a criminal case, a public security authority shall conduct criminal investigation and gather and require submission of evidence to prove the guilt or innocence of a criminal suspect or the pettiness or gravity of a crime. A person who is committing a crime or is strongly suspected of a crime may be first detained in accordance with law, and a criminal suspect who meets the conditions for arrest shall be arrested in accordance with law.
Article 114 After investigation, a public security authority shall conduct interrogation for a case with evidence on the facts of a crime to verify the evidence gathered and submitted.
Article 115 A party or a defender or litigation representative thereof or an interested party shall have the right to file a petition or accusation with a judicial authority regarding any of the following conduct of the judicial authority or any of its personnel:
(1) refusing to release a criminal suspect or defendant or terminate or modify a compulsory measure taken, when the statutory term of the compulsory measure expires;
(2) refusing to refund a bail bond that shall be refunded;
(3) seizing, impounding, or freezing any property irrelevant to a case;
(4) refusing to terminate a measure of seizing, impounding, or freezing property that shall be terminated; or
(5) embezzling, misappropriating, distributing in private, replacing, or illegally using any seized, impounded, or frozen property.
The authority accepting the petition or accusation shall handle it in a timely manner. Against the handling result, the party or the defender or litigation representative thereof or the interested party may file a petition with the people’s procuratorate at the same level; or, if the case is directly accepted by the people’s procuratorate, may file a petition with the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level. The people’s procuratorate shall examine the petition in a timely manner and, if it is true, notify the relevant authority to make correction.
Section 2: Interrogation of Criminal Suspects
Article 116 The interrogation of a criminal suspect must be conducted by the investigators of a people’s procuratorate or a public security authority. During interrogation, there must be two or more investigators.
After a criminal suspect is transferred to a jail for custody, the investigators shall conduct interrogation of the criminal suspect inside the jail.
Article 117 A criminal suspect for whom an arrest or detention is not necessary may be summoned to a designated place in the city or county where the criminal suspect resides or his or her residence for interrogation, but credentials from the people’s procuratorate or public security authority shall be produced. A criminal suspect discovered on the scene may be verbally summoned after a work pass is produced, but it shall be noted in the interrogation transcript.
The duration of interrogation by summons or forced appearance may not exceed 12 hours; or, if it is necessary to detain or arrest a criminal suspect in an extraordinarily significant or complicated case, the duration of interrogation by summons or forced appearance may not exceed 24 hours.
A criminal suspect shall not be actually held in custody by successive summons or forced appearance. During the period of interrogation by summons or forced appearance, the meals and necessary rest time of the criminal suspect shall be ensured.
Article 118 When interrogating a criminal suspect, the investigators shall first ask the criminal suspect whether he or she has committed any criminal act, allow him or her to state the facts of a crime or explain his or her innocence, and then ask him or her questions. The criminal suspect shall truthfully answer the questions of the investigators, but have the right to refuse to answer questions irrelevant to the case.
When interrogating a criminal suspect, the investigators shall inform the criminal suspect of the legal provisions on leniency if a criminal suspect truthfully confesses his or her crime.
Article 119 When a criminal suspect who suffers hearing or speech impairment is interrogated, a person familiar with the sign language for hearing- and speech-impaired persons shall participate in the interrogation, which shall be noted in the transcripts.
Article 120 The interrogation transcripts shall be confirmed by a criminal suspect, and, if the criminal suspect is unable to read, the transcripts shall be read out to him or her. If there are any omissions or errors in the transcripts, the criminal suspect may suggest supplements or corrections. After confirming that the transcripts are free from error, the criminal suspect shall sign or seal the transcripts. The investigators shall also sign the transcripts. A criminal suspect shall be permitted to personally write a confession, if he or she so requests. When necessary, the investigators may also require the criminal suspect to personally write a confession.
Article 121 When interrogating a criminal suspect, the investigators may keep an audio or visual record of the interrogation process; and, in a case regarding a crime punishable by life imprisonment or death penalty or any other significant crime, the investigators shall keep an audio or visual record of the interrogation process.
An audio or visual record shall cover the entire process of interrogation to ensure integrity.
Section 3: Interviewing Witnesses
Article 122 The investigators may interview a witness on the crime scene, at the place of the witness’s employer or residence, or at a place proposed by the witness, and, when necessary, may notify a witness to provide testimony at the people’s procuratorate or public security authority. When interviewing a witness on the crime scene, the investigators shall produce their work passes, and, when interviewing a witness at the place of the witness’s employer or residence or a place proposed by the witness, the investigators shall produce the credentials from the people’s procuratorate or public security authority.
Witnesses shall be interviewed individually.
Article 123 When a witness is interviewed, the witness shall be informed of the requirement of truthfully providing evidence and testimony and the legal liability for perjury or concealing criminal evidence.
Article 124 The provisions of Article 120 of this Law shall also apply to the interview of witnesses.
Article 125 The provisions of this Section shall apply to the interview of victims.
Section 4: Crime Scene Investigation and Examination
Article 126 The investigators shall conduct investigation or examination of sites, objects, persons, and corpses relevant to a crime. When necessary, persons with expertise may be assigned or retained to conduct crime scene investigation or examination under the direction of the investigators.
Article 127 Any entity or individual shall have the duty to protect a crime scene and immediately notify a public security authority to send personnel to conduct a crime scene investigation.
Article 128 To conduct a crime scene investigation or examination, the investigators must have credentials from a people’s procuratorate or a public security authority.
Article 129 Where the cause of death of a person is unknown, a public security authority shall have the authority to decide an autopsy but shall notify the family members of the deceased to be present.
Article 130 To determine certain characteristics, condition of injury, or physiological condition of a victim or criminal suspect, the body of the victim or criminal suspect may be examined, and fingerprint information and blood, urine, and other biological samples may be collected.
Where a criminal suspect refuses to be examined, the investigators may conduct a compulsory examination if deeming it necessary,.
The examination of the body of a female shall be conducted by female personnel or doctors.
Article 131 Transcripts of a crime scene investigation or examination shall be prepared, and be signed or sealed by the investigation or examination participants and eyewitnesses.
Article 132 Where a people’s procuratorate examining a case deems it necessary to re-conduct a crime scene investigation or examination that has been done by a public security authority, it may require the public security authority to re-conduct the crime scene investigation or examination and may send prosecutors to participate.
Article 133 To solve a case, when necessary, an investigative reenactment may be conducted with the approval of the chief of a public security authority.
Transcripts shall be prepared for an investigative reenactment, to which the signatures or seals of participants in the investigative reenactment shall be affixed.
In investigative reenactments, any conduct that suffices to cause any danger, insult anyone, or corrupt public morals shall be prohibited.
Section 5: Search
Article 134 To gather criminal evidence and capture a criminal, the investigators may search the body, objects, and residence of a criminal suspect or a person who may harbor a criminal or conceal criminal evidence, as well as other relevant places.
Article 135 Any entity or individual shall have the obligation to hand in physical evidence, documentary evidence, audio-visual recordings, and other evidence which may prove the guilt or innocence of a criminal suspect as required by the people’s procuratorate or public security authority.
Article 136 When a search is conducted, a search warrant must be produced to the person under search.
When an arrest or detention is conducted, a search may be conducted without a search warrant in case of emergency.
Article 137 During a search, the person under search, his or her family members or neighbors, or other eyewitnesses shall be present.
The search of the body of a female shall be conducted by female personnel.
Article 138 Transcripts of a research shall be prepared, and be signed or sealed by the investigators and the person under search, his or her family members or neighbors, or other eyewitnesses. If the person under search is fugitive or his or her family members refuse to sign or seal the transcripts, it shall be noted in the transcripts.
Section 6: Seizure and Impoundment of Physical Evidence and Documentary Evidence
Article 139 All objects and documents discovered during criminal investigation that may be used to prove the guilt or innocence of a criminal suspect shall be seized or impounded; and those irrelevant to a case may not be seized or impounded.
The seized or impounded objects and documents shall be properly preserved or sealed and may not be used, replaced, or damaged.
Article 140 All seized or impounded objects and documents shall be carefully checked by the investigators jointly with the eyewitnesses on the scene and holders of the seized or impounded objects and documents, and a list shall be made in duplicate on the scene, to which the signatures or seals of the investigators, eyewitnesses, and holders shall be affixed. One copy of the list shall be delivered to the holder, and the other shall be attached to the case file for future reference.
Article 141 Deeming it necessary to impound the mail and telegrams of a criminal suspect, with the approval of a public security authority or a people’s procuratorate, the investigators may notify the post and telecommunications authority to check and deliver the relevant mail and telegrams for impoundment.
When it is no longer necessary to continue the impoundment, the investigators shall immediately notify the post and telecommunications authority.
Article 142 A people’s procuratorate or a public security authority may, as needed for criminal investigation, inquire about or freeze the deposits, remittances, bonds, stocks, fund shares, and other property of criminal suspects according to relevant legal provisions. The relevant entities and individuals shall provide cooperation.
Where the deposits, remittances, bonds, stocks, fund shares, and other property of a criminal suspect have been frozen, repeat freezing shall be prohibited.
Article 143 Where the seized or impounded objects, documents, mail, or telegrams or the frozen deposits, remittances, bonds, stocks, fund shares, and other property are proved irrelevant to a case after investigation, the seizure, impoundment, or freezing measure shall be terminated within three days, and the above property shall be returned.
Section 7: Forensic Identification and Evaluation
Article 144 Where certain special issues in a case need to be clarified in order to solve the case, persons with expertise shall be assigned or retained to conduct identification or evaluation.
Article 145 After completion of identification or evaluation, an identification or evaluation expert shall prepare a written expert opinion and sign it.
An identification or evaluation expert who intentionally conducts false identification or evaluation shall be subject to legal liability.
Article 146 The criminal investigation authority shall inform a criminal suspect and a victim of the expert opinion to be used as evidence. Upon application of the criminal suspect or victim, a supplementary identification or evaluation or a re-identification or re-evaluation may be conducted.
Article 147 The period of mental illness evaluation of a criminal suspect shall not be counted in the case-handling period.
Section 8: Technical Investigation Measures
Article 148 After opening a case regarding a crime of compromising national security, a crime of terrorist activities, an organized crime of a gangland nature, a significant drug crime, or any other crime seriously endangering the society, a public security authority may, as needed for criminal investigation, take technical investigation measures after undergoing strict approval formalities.
After opening a case regarding a significant crime of embezzlement or bribery or a significant crime committed by taking advantage of one’s powers to gravely infringe upon the personal rights of citizens, a people’s procuratorate may, as needed for criminal investigation, take technical investigation measures after undergoing strict approval formalities and request the relevant authorities to execute such measures according to relevant legal provisions.
To capture a wanted criminal suspect or defendant or a fugitive criminal suspect or defendant whose arrest has been approved or decided, technical investigation measures necessary for capture may be taken with approval.
Article 149 In an approval decision, the types and scopes of application of the technical investigation measures to be taken shall be determined as needed for criminal investigation. An approval decision shall be valid for three months from the date issued. When technical investigation measures are no longer necessary, they shall be terminated in a timely manner; or if it is necessary to continue to take technical investigation measures in a complicated or difficult case after the term of validity expires, the term of validity may be extended with approval, but each extension may not exceed three months.
Article 150 Where technical investigation measures are taken, such measures must be executed in strict accordance with the approved types, scopes of application, and terms.
The investigators shall keep confidential any state secret, trade secret, or personal privacy known in the course of taking technical investigation measures; and must destroy in a timely manner materials irrelevant to a case acquired by taking technical investigation measures.
Materials acquired by taking technical investigation measures may only be used for criminal investigation, prosecution, and trial, and may not be used for other purposes.
When a public security authority takes technical investigation measures in accordance with law, the relevant entities and individuals shall provide cooperation and keep relevant information confidential.
Article 151 To solve a case, when necessary, criminal investigation may be conducted by relevant personnel anonymously as decided by the chief of a public security authority. However, such personnel shall not induce others to commit a crime and shall not use a method which may compromise public security or cause any serious danger to personal safety.
For criminal activities involving the delivery of drugs and other contraband or property, a public security authority may, as needed for criminal investigation, conduct controlled delivery according to relevant legal provisions.
Article 152 Materials collected by taking technical investigation measures under this Section may be used as evidence in criminal procedures. If any use of such evidence may endanger the personal safety of relevant persons or may cause other serious consequences, protective measures such as non-disclosure of the identity of relevant persons or relevant technical methods shall be taken. When necessary, evidence may be verified by judges out of court.
Section 9: Wanted Notices
Article 153 A public security authority may issue a wanted notice for a fugitive criminal suspect who shall be arrested and take effective measures to capture the criminal suspect.
A public security authority may directly issue a wanted notice within its jurisdiction; and, to issue a wanted notice beyond its jurisdiction, shall request a higher authority with the deciding power to issue such a notice.
Section 10: Close of Criminal Investigation
Article 154 The period of custody during criminal investigation after a criminal suspect is arrested shall not exceed two months. If the investigation of a complicated case cannot be closed within the period, the period may be extended for one month with the approval of the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level.
Article 155 Where, during a relatively long period of time, it is inappropriate to transfer an extraordinarily significant and complicated case for trial for special reasons, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall file a request with the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for approval of a postponed trial of the case.
Article 156 Where the investigation of the following cases cannot be closed within the period as set forth in Article 154 of this Law, the period may be extended for two months with the approval or decision of the people’s procuratorate of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government:
(1) significant and complicated cases in outlying areas where traffic is very difficult;
(2) significant cases regarding criminal gangs;
(3) significant and complicated cases regarding crimes committed from place to place; and
(4) significant and complicated cases with a wide involvement and difficulty in gathering evidence.
Article 157 Where a criminal suspect may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of ten years or more and the investigation of the case cannot be closed even upon expiration of the period as extended under Article 156 of this Law, the period may be extended for another two months with the approval or decision of the people’s procuratorate of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government.
Article 158 Where, during the period of criminal investigation, a criminal suspect is discovered to have committed another major crime, the period of custody during criminal investigation shall be recounted from the date of discovery according to the provisions of Article 154 of this Law.
Where the identity of a criminal suspect is unknown because the criminal suspect refuses to disclose his or her true name and residence address, an identity investigation shall be conducted, and the period of custody during criminal investigation shall be counted from the day when his or her identity is established, before which, however, criminal investigation and collection of evidence shall not be suspended. Where the facts of a crime are clear and evidence is hard and sufficient, even if the identity of the criminal suspect cannot be established, the criminal suspect may be prosecuted and tried by the name claimed by the criminal suspect.
Article 159 Where, before the investigation of a case is closed, the defense lawyer files a request for presenting an opinion, the criminal investigation authority shall hear the opinion of the defense lawyer and record it. A written opinion of the defense lawyer, if any, shall be attached to the case file.
Article 160 To close the investigation of a case, a public security authority shall ensure that the facts of a crime are clear and evidence is hard and sufficient, prepare a written prosecution opinion, which shall be transferred to the people’s procuratorate at the same level for examination and decision along with the case file and evidence, and, at the same time, inform a criminal suspect and the defense lawyer thereof of the transfer.
Article 161 Where it is discovered during criminal investigation that a criminal suspect shall not be subject to criminal liability, the case shall be dismissed; and, if the criminal suspect has been arrested, he or she shall be immediately released, a certificate of release shall be issued to him or her, and the people’s procuratorate originally approving the arrest shall be notified.
Section 11: Criminal Investigation of Cases Directly Accepted by People’s Procuratorates
Article 162 The criminal investigation of cases directly accepted by people’s procuratorates shall be governed by the provisions of this Chapter.
Article 163 Where, in a case directly accepted by a people’s procuratorate, it is necessary to arrest or detain a criminal suspect under a circumstance as described in Article 79 or item (4) or (5) of Article 80 of this Law, the people’s procuratorate shall make a decision, which shall be executed by a public security authority.
Article 164 A detainee in a case directly accepted by a people’s procuratorate shall be interrogated within 24 hours after detention. If it is discovered that the person should not have been detained, the person must be immediately released, and a certificate of release shall be issued to the person.
Article 165 If a people’s procuratorate deems it necessary to arrest a detainee in a case directly accepted by the people’s procuratorate, it shall make a decision within 14 days after detention. Under special circumstances, the time limit for deciding an arrest may be extended for one to three days. If arrest is not necessary, the detainee shall be released immediately; or if further investigation is necessary and the detainee meets the conditions for bail or residential confinement, the detainee shall be bailed or placed under residential confinement in accordance with law.
Article 166 After closing the criminal investigation of a case, a people’s procuratorate shall make a decision to initiate a public prosecution, a decision not to initiate a prosecution, or a decision to dismiss the case.
Chapter III: Initiation of Public Prosecution
Article 167 Any case requiring initiation of a public prosecution shall be subject to the examination and decision of a people’s procuratorate.
Article 168 During the examination of a case, a people’s procuratorate must ascertain:
(1) whether the facts and circumstances of a crime are clear, whether evidence is hard and sufficient, and whether the nature of a crime and the charges are correctly determined;
(2) whether there are any omitted crimes or other persons subject to criminal liability;
(3) whether a criminal suspect shall not be subject to criminal liability;
(4) whether there is an incidental civil action; and
(5) whether the criminal investigation of the case is legally conducted.
Article 169 A people’s procuratorate shall, within one month, make a decision on a case transferred by a public security authority for prosecution; and, in a significant or complicated case, the period may be extended for half a month.
Where the jurisdiction of a people’s procuratorate over a case being examined for prosecution is changed, the period of examination and prosecution shall be counted from the day when the people’s procuratorate having jurisdiction receives the case after the change.
Article 170 When examining a case, a people’s procuratorate shall interrogate a criminal suspect, hear the opinions of the defender, victim, and litigation representative, and record such opinions. The written opinions of the defender, victim, and litigation representative, if any, shall be attached to the case file.
Article 171 When examining a case, a people’s procuratorate may require a public security authority to provide evidence necessary for the trial of the case in court; and, if believing that any evidence may have been illegally obtained as described in Article 54 of this Law, may require a public security authority to explain the legality of obtainment of evidence.
Where a supplementary investigation is necessary, the people’s procuratorate examining a case may return the case to a public security authority for supplementary investigation or conduct investigation itself instead.
The supplementary investigation of a case shall be completed within one month. Supplementary investigation may only be conducted twice. After the supplementary investigation of a case is completed and the case is transferred to a people’s procuratorate, the period of examination and prosecution shall be counted anew by the people’s procuratorate.
Where, after supplementary investigation has been conducted twice for a case, a people’s procuratorate still deems that evidence is insufficient and the case does not meet the conditions for a public prosecution, the people’s procuratorate may decide not to initiate a public prosecution.
Article 172 Where a people’s procuratorate deems that the facts of a criminal suspect’s crime are clear, that evidence is hard and sufficient, and that the criminal suspect shall be subject to criminal liability, it shall make a decision to initiate a public prosecution; and, according to the provisions on trial jurisdiction, initiate a public prosecution in a people’s court and transfer the case file and evidence to the people’s court.
Article 173 Where a criminal suspect has no criminal facts or falls under any of the circumstances as set forth in Article 15 of this Law, a people’s procuratorate shall make a decision not to initiate a public prosecution.
Where the circumstances of a crime are minor and no criminal punishment is necessary or the criminal suspect is exempted from criminal punishment in accordance with the Criminal Law, a people’s procuratorate may decide not to initiate a public prosecution.
Where a people’s procuratorate decides not to initiate a public prosecution, the people’s procuratorate shall, at the same time, terminate the seizure, impoundment, or freezing of the property seized, impounded, or frozen during criminal investigation. If it is necessary to impose an administrative penalty on or take an administrative disciplinary action against a person who is not prosecuted or confiscate the illegal income of the person, the people’s procuratorate shall prepare a procuratorial opinion and transfer the case to the relevant competent authority for handling. The relevant competent authority shall inform the people’s procuratorate of the handling result in a timely manner.
Article 174 A decision not to initiate a public prosecution shall be announced publicly, and a written decision shall be served upon the person who is not prosecuted and his or her employer. If the person is in custody, he or she shall be immediately released.
Article 175 Where a people’s procuratorate decides not to initiate a public prosecution for a case transferred by a public security authority for prosecution, it shall serve a written decision upon the public security authority. Deeming the decision erroneous, the public security authority may request reconsideration and, if its opinion is not accepted, may request a review by the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level.
Article 176 Where a people’s procuratorate decides not to initiate a public prosecution for a case with a victim, it shall serve a written decision upon the victim. Against the decision, the victim may, within seven days after receiving the written decision, file a petition with the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level for initiation of a public prosecution. The people’s procuratorate shall inform the victim of its decision after reexamination. If the people’s procuratorate upholds the decision not to initiate a public prosecution, the victim may institute an action in a people’s court. The victim may also institute an action directly in a people’s court without undergoing the petition procedure. After the people’s court accepts the case, the people’s procuratorate shall transfer relevant case files to the people’s court.
Article 177 Where a people’s procuratorate decides not to initiate a public prosecution under paragraph 2, Article 173 of this Law, against the decision, the person not prosecuted may file a petition with the people’s procuratorate within seven days after receiving the written decision. The people’s procuratorate shall make a decision after reexamination, notify the person of the decision, and, at the same time, send a copy of the decision to the public security authority.
Part Three: Trial
Chapter I: Trial Organizations
Article 178 Trials of cases by a basic people’s court or an intermediate people’s court as a court of first instance shall be conducted by a collegial panel consisting of three members, who are either all judges or a combination of judge and people’s assessor; however, cases under summary procedures in a basic people’s court may be tried by a sole judge.
Trials of cases by a higher people’s court or the Supreme People’s Court as a court of first instance shall be conducted by a collegial panel consisting of three to seven members, who are either all judges or a combination of judge and people’s assessor.
When performing their functions in a people’s court, the people’s assessors shall enjoy equal rights as judges.
Trials of appeal cases by people’s courts shall be conducted by a collegial panel consisting of three to five judges.
The members of a collegial panel shall be in odd number.
The president of a people’s court or the chief of a trial division shall designate one judge to be the presiding judge of a collegial panel. If the president of a people’s court or the chief of a trial division participates in a trial, he or she shall serve as the presiding judge.
Article 179 Where, during deliberation of a collegial panel, there is any dissenting opinion, a decision shall be made based on the opinions of the majority, but the opinion of a dissenting member shall be entered in the transcripts. Transcripts of deliberation shall be signed by the members of a collegial panel.
Article 180 After holding a court session and conducting deliberation, a collegial panel shall render a sentence. If a collegial panel deems it difficult to make a decision on a difficult, complicated, or significant case, the collegial panel shall request a decision of the president of the court to submit the case to the judicial committee for discussion and decision. The collegial panel shall execute the decision of the judicial committee.
Chapter II: Procedures at First Instance
Section 1: Cases of Public Prosecution
Article 181 After examining a public prosecution initiated, a people’s court shall decide to hold a court session to hear the case if the charges in the indictment are based on clear facts.
Article 182 After deciding to hold a court session to hear a case, a people’s court shall determine the members of the collegial panel and serve a copy of the indictment of the people’s procuratorate upon the defendant and the defender thereof no later than ten days before the court session is opened.
Before a court session is opened, the judges may call together the public prosecutor, parties, defenders, and litigation representatives to gather information and hear opinions on trial-related issues, such as disqualification, a list of witnesses to testify in court, and exclusion of illegally obtained evidence.
After determining the opening date of a court session, a people’s court shall notify the people’s procuratorate of the opening time and place of the court session, summon the parties, notify the defenders, litigation representatives, witnesses, identification or evaluation experts, and interpreters, and serve the summons and notices no later than three days before the court session is opened. If a case is to be heard openly, the cause of action, the name of the defendant, and the opening time and place of the court session shall be announced no later than three days before the court session is opened.
The above proceedings shall be recorded in the transcripts, which shall be signed by the judges and court clerk.
Article 183 A people’s court of first instance shall hear cases openly. However, a case involving any state secret or personal privacy shall not be heard in open court; and a case involving any trade secret may be heard in camera if a party files such a request.
The reasons for hearing a case in camera shall be announced in court.
Article 184 When a case of public prosecution is heard by a people’s court, the people’s procuratorate shall send procurators to appear before court to support the public prosecution.
Article 185 When a court session begins, the presiding judge shall check whether all parties are in court and announce the cause of action; announce the names of the members of the collegial panel, court clerk, public prosecutor, defenders, litigation representative, identification or evaluation experts, and interpreters; inform the parties of their right to apply for disqualification of the members of the collegial panel, court clerk, public prosecutor, identification or evaluation experts, and interpreters; and inform a defendant of his or her defense right.
Article 186 After the public prosecutor reads out the indictment in court, a defendant and a victim may present a statement regarding a crime alleged in the indictment, and the public prosecutor may question the defendant.
A victim, a plaintiff and a defender in an incidental civil action, and a litigation representative may, with the permission of the presiding judge, question a defendant.
A judge may question a defendant.
Article 187 Where the public prosecutor or a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof raises any objection to a witness statement which has a material effect on the conviction and sentencing of a case, the witness shall testify before court if the people’s court deems it necessary.
Where a people’s police officer testifies before court regarding a crime witnessed in line of duty, the preceding paragraph shall apply.
Where the public prosecutor or a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof raises any objection to an expert opinion, the identification or evaluation expert shall testify before court if the people’s court deems it necessary. If the identification or evaluation expert refuses to do so after being notified by the people’s court, the expert opinion may not be used as a basis for deciding the case.
Article 188 Where, after being notified by a people’s court, a witness refuses to testify before court without justifiable reasons, the people’s court may force the witness to appear before court, unless the witness is the spouse, a parent, or a child of the defendant.
A witness who refuses to appear before court or refuses to testify after appearing before court without justifiable reasons shall be admonished; and if the circumstances are serious, with the approval of the president of the people’s court, the witness may be detained for not more than 10 days. Against the detention decision, the detainee may apply to the people’s court at the next higher level for reconsideration. Execution of the detention decision shall not be suspended pending reconsideration.
Article 189 Before a witness takes the stand, a judge shall inform the witness of the requirement of truthfully providing testimony and the legal liability for perjury or concealing criminal evidence. The public prosecutor or a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof may, with the permission of the presiding judge, question a witness or an identification or evaluation expert. Deeming a question irrelevant to the case, the presiding judge shall prohibit the question.
A judge may question a witness or an identification or evaluation expert.
Article 190 The public prosecutor and a defender shall adduce physical evidence before court for the parties to identify, and a statement of a witness who is not in court, an expert opinion of an identification or evaluation expert who is not in court, transcripts of crime scene investigation, and other documentation serving as evidence shall be read out in court. A judge shall hear the opinions of the public prosecutor, parties, defenders, and litigation representatives.
Article 191 Where, during a court session, a collegial panel has any doubt on evidence, it may announce an adjournment to investigate and verify evidence.
When investigating and verifying evidence, a people’s court may conduct crime scene investigation, examination, seizure, impoundment, forensic identification or evaluation, property inquiry, and freezing of property.
Article 192 During a court session, a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof shall have the right to request that a new witness be called to the court, that new physical evidence be submitted, or that a new forensic identification or evaluation or crime scene investigation be conducted.
The public prosecutor or a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof may request the court to call a person with expertise to appear before court to offer an opinion on the expert opinion of an identification or evaluation expert.
The court shall make a decision on whether to grant a request above.
Where a person with expertise appears before court under paragraph 2 hereof, the relevant provisions on identification or evaluation experts shall apply.
Article 193 In a court session, any fact or evidence related to conviction or sentencing shall be investigated and debated.
With the permission of the presiding judge, the public prosecutor or a party or the defender or litigation representative thereof may present opinions on the evidence and merits of a case and debate with opposing parties.
After the presiding judge declares an end of debate, the defendant shall have the right to present a closing statement.
Article 194 Where, during a court session, any litigation participant or observer violates the order of the courtroom, the presiding judge shall warn the person and order desistance. If the person refuses to desist, the person may be forced out of the courtroom. If the violation is serious, the person shall be fined not more than 1,000 yuan or detained for not more than 15 days. The fine or detention must be subject to the approval of the president of the people’s court. Against the fine or detention decision, the person may apply to the people’s court at the next higher level for reconsideration. Execution of the fine or detention shall not be suspended pending reconsideration.
Whoever assembles a crowd to interrupt or impact a court session or insults, defames, intimidates, or batters judicial personnel or litigation participants, seriously disturbing the order of the courtroom and constituting a crime, shall be subject to criminal liability in accordance with law.
Article 195 After a defendant makes his or closing statement, the presiding judge shall announce an adjournment, and the collegial panel shall conduct deliberation and, based on the established facts and evidence and according to relevant legal provisions, render a sentence as follows:
(1) if the facts of a case are clear, evidence is hard and sufficient, and the defendant is found guilty in accordance with law, the collegial panel shall render a guilty sentence;
(2) if the defendant is found innocent in accordance with law, the collegial panel shall render an acquittal sentence; or
(3) if the defendant cannot be found guilty for insufficient evidence, the collegial panel shall render an acquittal sentence stating that the charges are denied for insufficient evidence.
Article 196 In any case, a sentence shall be announced publicly.
Where a sentence is announced at the end of a court session, a written sentence shall be served within five days upon the parties and the people’s procuratorate that initiated the public prosecution; or, if the announcement of a sentence is scheduled for a later date, a written sentence shall be served immediately after announcement upon the parties and the people’s procuratorate that indicated the public prosecution. At the same time, a written sentence shall be served upon a defender and a litigation representative.
Article 197 A written sentence shall be signed by the judges and court clerk and indicate the time limit for appeal and name of the appellate court.
Article 198 Where any of the following circumstances occurs during the trial of a case, which affects the trial, the trial may be postponed:
(1) it is necessary to call a new witness to court, request submission of new physical evidence, or conduct a new forensic identification or evaluation or crime scene investigation;
(2) the procurators discover that a case in public prosecution requires supplementary investigation and suggest such investigation to the court; or
(3) the trial cannot proceed for a request for disqualification.
Article 199 Where the trial of a case is postponed under item (2) of Article 198 of this Law, a people’s procuratorate shall complete supplementary investigation within one month.
Article 200 Where any of the following circumstances occurs during the trial of a case, which makes the trial impossible for a relatively long period of time, the trial may be suspended:
(1) the defendant is unable to appear before court for suffering a serious illness;
(2) the defendant has escaped;
(3) the private prosecutor is unable to appear before court for suffering a serious illness and has not retained a litigation representative to appear before court; or
(4) there is any irresistible reason.
After the cause of suspension of a trial disappears, the trial shall be resumed. The time of suspension of a trial shall not be counted in the period of trial.
Article 201 The court clerk shall prepare transcripts of an entire court session, which shall be examined by the presiding judge and signed by the presiding judge and court clerk.
The witness testimony portion of the court transcripts shall be read out in court or read by the witnesses. After confirming that the transcripts are free of error, the witnesses shall sign or seal the transcripts.
Court transcripts shall be read by the parties or read out to them. A party which finds any omissions or errors in the transcripts may request supplements or corrections. After confirming that the transcripts are free of error, the party shall sign or seal the transcripts.
Article 202 A people’s court shall announce a sentence for a case of public prosecution within two months, or three months at the latest, after accepting the case. For a case with the possibility of a death penalty or a case with an incidental civil action or under any of the circumstances as set forth in Article 156 of this Law, the period of trial may be extended for three months with the approval of the people’s court at the next higher level; and, if more extension is needed under special circumstances, the extension shall be reported to the Supreme People’s Court for approval.
Where the jurisdiction of a people’s court over a case is changed, the period of trial of the case shall be counted from the day when the people’s court having jurisdiction receives the case after the change.
For a case under supplementary investigation by a people’s procuratorate, a people’s court shall count anew the period of trial of the case after the supplementary investigation is completed and the case is transferred to the court.
Article 203 A people’s procuratorate which discovers that a people’s court has violated the statutory procedures during the trial of a case shall have the authority to suggest that the people’s court make correction.
Section 2: Cases of Private Prosecution
Article 204 Cases of private prosecution include:
(1) a case to be handled only upon complaint;
(2) a minor criminal case which the victim has evidence to prove; and
(3) a case where a victim has evidence to prove that a defendant has infringed upon his or her personal or property rights and shall be subject to criminal liability in accordance with law but a public security authority or a people’s procuratorate decides not to subject the defendant to criminal liability.
Article 205 After examining a case of private prosecution, a people’s court shall handle it as follows:
(1) if the facts of a crime are clear and evidence is sufficient, the people’s court shall hold a court session to try the case; or
(2) if evidence to prove a crime is insufficient in a case of private prosecution and the private prosecutor cannot provide supplementary evidence, the people’s court shall persuade the private prosecutor to withdraw the private prosecution or render a ruling to dismiss the private prosecution.
Where a private prosecutor refuses to appear before court without justifiable reasons after having been legally summoned twice or withdraws from a court session without the permission of the court, the case shall be deemed withdrawn by the private prosecutor.
Where, during a court session, a judge has any doubt on evidence and deems it necessary to investigate and verify evidence, the provisions of Article 191 of this Law shall apply.
Article 206 A people’s court may conduct mediation in a case of private prosecution; and the private prosecutor may voluntarily reach a settlement with the defendant or withdraw the private prosecution before a sentence is announced. Mediation shall not apply to a case as described in item (3), Article 204 of this Law.
The period for a people’s court to try a case of private prosecution shall be governed by paragraph 1 or 2, Article 202 of this Law if the defendant is in custody; or a sentence shall be announced within six months after the case is accepted if the defendant is not in custody.
Article 207 During litigation of a case of private prosecution, the defendant may file a counterclaim against the private prosecutor. The provisions governing a private prosecution shall apply to a counterclaim.
Section 3: Summary Procedures
Article 208 A case under the jurisdiction of a basic people’s court may be heard under summary procedures, if the following conditions are met:
(1) the facts of a case are clear and evidence is sufficient;
(2) the defendant confesses his or her crime and raises no objection to the charges; and
(3) the defendant raises no objection to the application of summary procedures.
When initiating a public prosecution, a people’s procuratorate may suggest that the people’s court apply summary procedures.
Article 209 Under any of the following circumstances, summary procedures shall not apply:
(1) the defendant suffers vision, hearing, or speech impairment or is a mental patient who has not completely lost the ability to recognize or control his or her behavior;
(2) the case has a significant social impact;
(3) in a joint crime, some defendant pleads not guilty or raises an objection to the application of summary procedures; or
(4) the application of summary procedures is otherwise inappropriate.
Article 210 In a case under summary procedures, if the defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of three years or a lighter punishment, the case may be tried by a collegial panel or a sole judge; and if the defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than three years, a collegial panel must be formed to try the case.
For a case of public prosecution under summary procedures, the people’s procuratorate shall send procurators to appear before court.
Article 211 When trying a case under summary procedures, a judge shall ask for the defendant’s opinion on the charges, inform the defendant of the legal provisions on application of summary procedures, and confirm whether the defendant agrees on the application of summary procedures.
Article 212 In a case under summary procedures, the defendant and his or her defender may, with the permission of a judge, debate with the public prosecutor or private prosecutor and his or her litigation representative.
Article 213 The trial of a case under summary procedures shall not be subject to the provisions of Section 1 of this Chapter regarding the time limit for service of process and the procedures for questioning the defendant, witnesses, and identification or evaluation experts, adducing evidence, and debating in court. However, before a sentence is announced, the closing statement of the defendant shall be heard.
Article 214 For a case under summary procedures, a people’s court shall close the case within 20 days after accepting the case; or, if the defendant may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of more than three years, the above period may be extended to one and a half months.
Article 215 Where, during the trial of a case, a people’s court discovers that summary procedures are not appropriate for the case, it shall try the case anew according to the provisions of Section 1 or Section 2 of this Chapter.
Chapter III: Procedures at Second Instance
Article 216 Against a sentence or ruling of a local people’s court at any level as a court of first instance, a defendant, a private prosecutor, or a legal representative thereof shall have the right to appeal in writing or verbally to the people’s court at the next higher level. A defender or close relative of a defendant may, with the consent of the defendant, file an appeal for the defendant.
A party in an incidental civil action or his or her legal representative may appeal against the incidental civil action portion of a sentence or ruling of a local people’s court at any level as a court of first instance.
A defendant shall not be deprived of the right to appeal under any pretext.
Article 217 Deeming that there is any definite error in a sentence or ruling of a people’s court at the same level as a court of first instance, a local people’s procuratorate shall file an appeal with the people’s court at the next higher level.
Article 218 Against a sentence of a local people’s court at any level as a court of first instance, a victim or his or her legal representative shall, within five days after receiving a written sentence, have the right to request that the people’s procuratorate file an appeal. The people’s procuratorate shall, within five days after receiving the request of the victim or his or her legal representative, make a decision on whether to file an appeal and make a reply to the requesting party.
Article 219 The time limit for filing an appeal against a sentence shall be 10 days, and the time limit for filing an appeal against a ruling shall be five days, starting from the next day of receipt of a written sentence or ruling.
Article 220 Where a defendant, a private prosecutor, or a plaintiff or defendant in an incidental civil action files an appeal through the original trial court, the original trial court shall, within three days, transfer a written appeal along with the case file and evidence to the people’s court at the next higher level and, at the same time, serve a copy of the written appeal upon the people’s procuratorate at the same level and the opposing party.
Where a defendant, a private prosecutor, or a plaintiff or defendant in an incidental civil action files an appeal directly with the people’s court of second instance, the people’s court of second instance shall, within three days, transfer a written appeal to the original trial court, which shall serve it upon the people’s procuratorate at the same level and the opposing party.
Article 221 Against a sentence or ruling of a people’s court at the same level as a court of first instance, a local people’s procuratorate shall file a written appeal through the original trial court and send a copy thereof to the people’s procuratorate at the next higher level. The original trial court shall transfer the written appeal along with the case file and evidence to the people’s court at the next higher level and serve a copy of the written appeal upon the parties.
Deeming the appeal inappropriate, the people’s procuratorate at a higher level may withdraw the appeal from the people’s court at the same level and notify the people’s procuratorate at a lower level.
Article 222 The people’s court of second instance shall conduct a comprehensive review of the facts found and application of law in the sentence of the people’s court of first instance, without limitations to the extent of appeal.
Where not all defendants in a case of joint crime file an appeal, the entire case shall be reviewed and handled.
Article 223 A people’s court of second instance shall form a collegial panel to hear the following case in a court session:
(1) an appellate case where a defendant or a private prosecutor or the legal representative thereof has raised any objection to the facts and evidence determined in the trial at first instance, which may affect conviction and sentencing;
(2) an appellate case where the defendant is sentenced to death penalty;
(3) a case appealed by the people’s procuratorate; and
(4) any other case which shall by heard in a court session.
Where a people’s court of second instance decides not to hold a court session to hear a case, it shall arraign the defendant and hear the opinions of other parties, defenders, and litigation representatives.
A people’s court of second instance may hold a court session to hear an appellate case at the place of occurrence of the case or the place where the original trial court is located.
Article 224 For a case appealed by a people’s procuratorate or a case of public prosecution heard by a people’s court of second instance in a court session, the people’s procuratorate at the same level shall send procurators to appear before court. The people’s court of second instance shall, after deciding to hold a court session to hear a case, notify the people’s procuratorate in a timely manner to consult the case file. The people’s procuratorate shall complete consultation of the case file within one month. The time for the people’s procuratorate to consult the case file shall not be counted in the period of trial.
Article 225 After hearing an appellate case against a sentence of a people’s court of first instance, the people’s court of second instance shall handle it as follows:
(1) if the original sentence is correct in fact finding and application of law and is appropriate in sentencing, the people’s court of second instance shall render a ruling to dismiss the appeal and uphold the original sentence;
(2) if the original sentence is correct in fact finding but erroneous in application of law or is inappropriate in sentencing, the people’s court of second instance shall modify the original sentence; or
(3) if the facts are unclear or evidence is insufficient in the original judgment, the people’s court of second instance may modify the original sentence after the case facts are ascertained; or render a ruling to revoke the original sentence and remand the case to the original trial court for retrial.
Where a defendant or the people’s procuratorate appeals after the original trial court renders a sentence for a case remanded for retrial under item (3) of the preceding paragraph, the people’s court of second instance shall render a sentence or ruling in accordance with law and may not remand the case again to the original trial court for retrial.
Article 226 A people’s court of second instance which hears a case appealed by a defendant or his or her legal representative, defender, or close relative shall not aggravate the criminal punishment on the defendant. In a case remanded by the people’s court of second instance to the original trial court for retrial, the original trial court shall not aggravate the criminal punishment on the defendant, unless there is any new crime and the people’s procuratorate has initiated a supplementary prosecution.
The limitations as mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall not apply to a case appealed by a people’s procuratorate or a private prosecutor.
Article 227 Where a people’s court of second instance discovers that a people’s court of first instance has committed any of the following violations of statutory procedures when hearing a case, it shall render a ruling to revoke the original sentence and remand the case to the original trial court for retrial:
(1) the provisions of this Law regarding open trial are violated;
(2) the disqualification provisions are violated;
(3) a party is deprived of statutory procedural rights or such rights of a party are restricted, which may affect a fair trial;
(4) the composition of a trial organization is illegal; or
(5) statutory procedures are otherwise violated, which may affect a fair trial.
Article 228 The original trial court shall form a new collegial panel for a case remanded for retrial and hear the case under procedures at first instance. A sentence rendered after the retrial may be appealed in accordance with the provisions of Articles 216, 217, and 218 of this Law.
Article 229 After reviewing an appeal against a ruling of a people’s court of first instance, a people’s court of second instance shall render a ruling to dismiss the appeal or revoke or modify the original ruling by referring to the provisions of Articles 225,227, and 228 of this Law.
Article 230 The original trial court shall count anew the period of trial of a case remanded to it by the people’s court of second instance from the day of receiving the case remanded.
Article 231 A people’s court of second instance shall hear appellate cases by referring to the procedures at first instance, except as otherwise provided for in this Chapter.
Article 232 After accepting an appellate case, a people’s court of second instance shall close the trial of the case within two months. For a case with the possibility of a death penalty or a case with an incidental civil action or under any of the circumstances as set forth in Article 156 of this Law, the period of trial may be extended for two months with the approval or decision of the higher people’s court of a province, autonomous region, or municipality directly under the Central Government; and, if more extension is needed under special circumstances, the extension shall be reported to the Supreme People’s Court for approval.
The period for the Supreme People’s Court to try an appellate case shall be decided by the Supreme People’s Court.
Article 233 A sentence or ruling of a people’s court of second instance or a sentence or ruling of the Supreme People’s Court shall be final.
Article 234 A public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court shall properly preserve the seized, impounded, or frozen property of a criminal suspect or defendant, as well as the fruits thereof, for future examination and prepare a list, which shall be transferred along with a case. No entity or individual may misappropriate or dispose of such property without permission. The lawful property of a victim shall be returned to the victim in a timely manner. Contraband and perishable property shall be disposed of according to the relevant provisions of the state.
Physical property used as evidence shall be transferred along with a case, and, if such transfer is not appropriate, a list, the photos, and other certification documents of such property shall be transferred along with the case.
The sentence of a people’s court shall include the disposal of the seized, impounded, or frozen property and the fruits thereof.
After a sentence of a people’s court becomes effective, the relevant authority shall dispose of the seized, impounded, or frozen property and the fruits thereof in accordance with the sentence. All the illegally obtained property that is seized, impounded, or frozen and the fruits thereof, except those legally returned to the victims, shall be turned over to the state treasury.
Judicial personnel who embezzle, misappropriate, or dispose without permission of the seized, impounded, or frozen property or the fruits thereof shall be subject to criminal liability in accordance with law; or, if no crime is committed, shall be subject to a disciplinary action.
Chapter IV: Procedure for Review of Death Sentences
Article 235 Death sentences shall be subject to the approval of the Supreme People’s Court.
Article 236 Where a defendant is sentenced to death penalty by an intermediate people’s court as a court of first instance but does not appeal, the sentence shall be reviewed by a higher people’s court and submitted to the Supreme People’s Court for approval. Disagreeing on the death penalty, the higher people’s court may directly retry the case or remand the case for retrial.
Where a defendant is sentenced to death penalty by a higher people’s court as a court of first instance but does not appeal or a defendant is sentenced to deal penalty by a higher people’s court as a court of second instance, the sentence shall be submitted to the Supreme People’s Court for approval.
Article 237 Where a defendant is sentenced to death penalty with a two-year suspension by an intermediate people’s court, the sentence shall be subject to the approval of a higher people’s court.
Article 238 A collegial panel consisting of three judges shall be formed for the Supreme People’s Court to review a death sentence or for a higher people’s court to review a death sentence with a suspension.
Article 239 The Supreme People’s Court reviewing a death sentence shall make a ruling to approve or disapprove the death sentence. If the death sentence is disapproved, the Supreme People’s Court may remand the case for retrial or render a new sentence.
Article 240 The Supreme People’s Court reviewing a death sentence shall arraign the defendant and, if the defense lawyer files a request for presenting an opinion, hear the opinion of the defense lawyer.
During the review of a death sentence, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate may present an opinion to the Supreme People’s Court. The Supreme People’s Court shall notify the Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the review result.
Chapter V: Trial Supervision Procedures
Article 241 A party or his or her legal representative or close relative may file a petition with a people’s court or a people’s procuratorate against an effective sentence or ruling, but the execution of the sentence or ruling shall not be suspended.
Article 242 Where a petition of a party or his or her legal representative or close relative meets any of the following conditions, the people’s court shall conduct a retrial:
(1) there is new evidence to prove that the facts are erroneously determined in the original sentence or ruling, which may affect conviction and sentencing;
(2) the evidence on which conviction and sentencing are based is not hard and sufficient or shall be excluded in accordance with law, or the material evidence on the facts of the case contradicts each other;
(3) the application of law in the original sentence or ruling is incorrect;
(4) the statutory procedures are violated, which may affect a fair trial; or
(5) a judge committed embezzlement, bribery, or fraud for personal gains or bended the law when trying the case.
Article 243 Where the president of a people’s court at any level discovers that there are any definite errors in fact finding or application of law in an effective sentence or ruling of the court, the sentence or ruling must be submitted to the judicial committee for handling.
Where the Supreme People’s Court discovers any definite errors in an effective sentence or ruling of a people’s court at any level or a people’s court at a higher level discovers any definite errors in an effective sentence or ruling of a people’s court at a lower level, it shall have the authority to directly retry the case or order a people’s court at a lower level to retry the case.
Where the Supreme People’s Procuratorate discovers any definite errors in an effective sentence or ruling of a people’s court at any level or a people’s procuratorate at a higher level discovers any definite errors in an effective sentence or ruling of a people’s court at a lower level, it shall have the authority to file an appeal under the trial supervision procedures with the people’s court at the same level.
The people’s court accepting an appeal of a people’s procuratorate under the trial supervision procedures shall form a collegial panel to retry the case; or, if the facts are unclear or evidence is insufficient in the original sentence, may order a people’s court at a lower level to retry the case.
Article 244 Where a people’s court at a higher level orders a people’s court at a lower level to retry a case, it shall order a people’s court at a lower level other than the original trial court to try the case; but if it is more appropriate for the case to be retried by the original trial court, it may order the original trial court to retry the case.
Article 245 Where a people’s court retries a case under the trial supervision procedure, a new collegial panel shall be formed if the retrial is conducted by the original trial court. If the case is originally tried by a people’s court of first instance, it shall be retried under procedures at first instance and the sentence or ruling rendered may be appealed. If the case is originally tried by a people’s court of second instance or is a case directly retried under the trial supervision procedures by a people’s court at a higher level, it shall be retried under procedures at second instance and the sentence or ruling rendered shall be final.
When a people’s court retries a case in a court session, the people’s procuratorate at the same level shall send procurators to appear before the court.
Article 246 For a case which a people’s court decides to retry, any necessary compulsory measure against a defendant shall be decided by the people’s court; or, for a case to be retried upon appeal of a people’s procuratorate under the trial supervision procedures, any necessary compulsory measure against a defendant shall be decided by the people’s procuratorate.
For a case tried under the trial supervision procedures, a people’s court may decide to suspend the execution of the original sentence or ruling.
Article 247 The trial of a case by a people’s court under the trial supervision procedures shall be closed within three months from the day when the court decides to directly retry the case or when a retrial decision is made, and, if any extension of the period is necessary, the period shall not exceed six months.
The preceding paragraph shall apply to the period for a people’s court accepting an appeal under the trial supervision procedures to retry the case appealed; and if it is necessary to order a people’s court at a lower level to retry the case, a decision shall be made within one month from the day when the court accepts the appeal, and the preceding paragraph shall apply to the period for the people’s court at a lower level to retry the case.
Part Four: Execution
Article 248 Sentences and rulings shall be executed after taking effect.
The following sentences and rulings are effective sentences and rulings:
(1) a judgment or ruling against which no appeal has been filed within the statutory period;
(2) a final sentence or ruling; and
(3) a death sentence approved by the Supreme People’s Court and a death sentence with a two-year suspension approved by a higher people’s court.
Article 249 Where a defendant in custody is acquitted or exempted from criminal punishment by a people’s court of first instance, the defendant shall be released immediately after the sentence is announced.
Article 250 For a death sentence with immediate execution rendered or approved by the Supreme People’s Court, the president of the Supreme People’s Court shall sign and issue an order to execute the death sentence.
Where a convict sentenced to death penalty with a two-year suspension commits no intentional crime during the period of suspension, his or her sentence shall be commuted when the period of suspension expires, and the execution authority shall submit a written recommendation to the higher people’s court for a ruling; where it is proved that the convict has committed any intentional crime, his or her death sentence shall be executed, and the higher people’s court shall report it to the Supreme People’s Court for approval.
Article 251 After receiving an order from the Supreme People’s Court to execute a death sentence, a people’s court at a lower level shall deliver the convict for execution within seven days. However, under any of the following circumstances, the people’s court at a lower level shall suspend execution and immediately report it to the Supreme People’s Court for a ruling:
(1) it is discovered before execution that the sentence may be erroneous;
(2) before execution, the convict exposes any major crimes of others or has other major meritorious acts, and the sentence may be changed; or
(3) the convict is pregnant.
If the reason for suspension of execution as set forth in item (1) or (2) of the preceding paragraph disappears, the sentence may be executed only after the president of the Supreme People’s Court signs and issues another order to execute the death sentence upon a request. If execution is suspended for the reason as set forth in item (3) of the preceding paragraph, a request shall be submitted to the Supreme People’s Court for modifying the sentence in accordance with law.
Article 252 Before delivering a convict for execution of a death sentence, a people’s court shall notify the people’s procuratorate at the same level to send prosecutors to supervise the execution.
A death sentence shall be executed by such means as shooting or injection.
A death sentence may be executed on an execution ground or in a designated place of custody.
A judge directing execution shall verify the identity of the convict, ask the convict for any last words or letters, and then deliver the convict to the executioner for execution of the death penalty. If it is discovered before execution that there may be any errors, execution shall be suspended, and it shall be reported to the Supreme People’s Court for a ruling.
Execution of a death sentence shall be announced publicly but shall not be conducted in public.
After a death sentence is executed, the court clerk on the scene shall prepare a transcript. The people’s court delivering the convict for execution shall report the execution of the death sentence to the Supreme People’s Court.
After a death sentence is executed, the people’s court delivering the convict for execution shall notify the family members of the convict.
Article 253 Where a convict is delivered for execution of a criminal penalty, the people’s court delivering the convict for execution shall serve the relevant legal documents upon the public security authority, prison, or other execution authority within 10 days after the sentence takes effect.
A convict sentenced to death penalty with a two-year suspension, life imprisonment, or fixed-term imprisonment shall be delivered by the public security authority to a prison for execution of the criminal penalty. Where a convict is sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment but the remaining term of the penalty is not more than three months before the convict is delivered for execution, the sentence shall be executed by a jail instead. For a convict sentenced to limited incarceration, the sentence shall be executed by the public security authority.
The criminal penalty on a juvenile delinquent shall be executed in a reformatory for juvenile delinquents.
An execution authority shall take a convict into custody in a timely manner and notify the family members of the convict.
After a convict sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration finishes serving his or her sentence, the execution authority shall issue a certificate of release to the convict.
Article 254 Under any of the following circumstances, a convict sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or limited incarceration may temporarily serve his or her sentence outside an incarceration facility:
(1) The convict suffers a serious illness and needs to be released on bail for medical treatment;
(2) The convict is a pregnant woman or a woman who is breastfeeding her own baby; or
(3) The convict cannot live by himself or herself, and it will not cause any danger to the society for the convict to temporarily serve his or her sentence outside an incarceration facility.
Under item (2) of the preceding paragraph, a convict sentenced to life imprisonment may temporarily serve her sentence outside an incarceration facility.
If the release of a convict on bail for medical treatment may cause any danger to the society or a convict suffers any self-inflicted injury or disability, the convict may not be released on bail for medical treatment.
If a convict suffers a serious illness and must be released on bail for medical treatment, a hospital designated by the people’s government at the provincial level shall conduct diagnosis and issue a certification document.
Before a convict is handed over for execution of a criminal penalty, whether the convict temporarily serves his or her sentence outside an incarceration facility shall be decided by the people’s court which hands over the convict for execution of a criminal penalty; after a convict is handed over for execution of a criminal penalty, regarding a convict’s temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility, the prison or jail shall prepare a written opinion, which shall be reported to the prison administrative authority at or above the provincial level or the public security authority at or above the level of a districted city for approval.
Article 255 A prison or jail which prepares a written opinion on a convict’s temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility shall send a copy of the written opinion to the people’s procuratorate. The people’s procuratorate may provide a written opinion to the deciding or approving authority.
Article 256 The authority which decides or approves a convict’s temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility shall send a copy of its decision to the people’s procuratorate. Deeming the temporary serving of a sentence outside an incarceration facility improper, the people’s procuratorate shall, within one month from the date of receiving the notification, submit a written opinion to the deciding or approving authority, and the deciding or approving authority shall reexamine its decision immediately after receiving the written opinion of the people’s procuratorate.
Article 257 Under any of the following circumstances, a convict temporarily serving his or sentence outside an incarceration facility shall be taken back to prison in a timely manner:
(1) it is discovered that the convict does not meet the conditions for temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility;
(2) the convict has seriously violated the provisions on supervision and management of convicts temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility; or
(3) The circumstances allowing a convict’s serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility disappear and the convict’s term of sentence has not expired.
Where a convict who temporarily serves a sentence outside an incarceration facility as decided by a people’s court shall be taken back to prison, a decision shall be made by the people’s court, and the relevant legal documents shall be served upon the public security authority, prison, or other execution authority.
Where a convict who does not meet the conditions for temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility is permitted to temporarily serve a sentence outside an incarceration facility by illegal means such as bribery, the time served outside an incarceration facility shall not be counted in the executed period of punishment. If a convict escapes during the period of temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility, the period of escape shall not be counted in the executed period of punishment.
Where a convict dies during the period of temporarily serving a sentence outside an incarceration facility, the execution authority shall notify the prison or jail without delay.
Article 258 A convict who is sentenced to supervision without incarceration, is granted probation or parole, or temporarily serves a sentence outside an incarceration facility shall be subject to community correction, which shall be executed by a community correction institution.
Article 259 For a convict sentenced to deprivation of political rights, the penalty shall be executed by a public security authority. After the convict finishes serving the sentence, the execution authority shall notify in writing the convict, his or her employer, and the basic organizations at the place of his or her residence.
Article 260 Where a convict sentenced to a fine fails to pay the fine within a prescribed period, a people’s court shall compel the convict to pay; and, if the convict has difficulty in paying the fine for suffering any irresistible disaster, the people’s court may render a ruling to reduce or waive the fine.
Article 261 A sentence of confiscation of property, whether imposed accessorily or independently, shall be executed by a people’s court; and, when necessary, may be executed jointly with a public security authority.
Article 262 Where a convict commits a crime again or a crime not discovered at the time of sentencing is discovered while the convict serves his or her sentence, the execution authority shall transfer it to a people’s procuratorate for handling.
Where a convict sentenced to supervision without incarceration, limited incarceration, fixed-term imprisonment, or life imprisonment shows true repentance or has meritorious acts while serving his or her sentence and shall be granted commutation or parole in accordance with law, the execution authority shall submit a written recommendation to the people’s court for examination and decision, and send a copy of it to the people’s procuratorate. The people’s procuratorate may provide a written opinion to the people’s court.
Article 263 Deeming that a ruling of a people’s court on commutation or parole is improper, a people’s procuratorate shall, within 20 days after receiving a copy of the written ruling, submit a written opinion on correction to the people’s court. The people’s court shall, within one month after receiving the opinion on correction, form a new collegial panel to try the case and render a final ruling.
Article 264 Where, during execution of criminal sentences, a prison or any other execution authority deems a sentence erroneous or a convict files a petition against his or her sentence, the prison or other execution authority shall transfer it to a people’s procuratorate or the original trial court for handling.
Article 265 People’s procuratorates shall supervise the legality of execution of criminal sentences by execution authorities and, if discovering any violations of law, shall notify executing authorities to make correction.
Part V: Special Procedures
Chapter I: Procedures for Juvenile Criminal Cases
Article 266 For juvenile criminals, the policy of education, reformation, and redemption shall apply, and the principle of education assisted by punishment shall be followed.
When handling juvenile criminal cases, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority shall ensure that juveniles are able to exercise their procedural rights, ensure that they receive legal assistance, and assign judges, prosecutors, and investigators who are familiar with the physical and psychological characteristics of juveniles to handle such cases.
Article 267 For a juvenile criminal suspect or defendant who has not retained a defender, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, or a public security authority shall notify a legal aid agency to assign a lawyer to defend him or her.
Article 268 When handling juvenile criminal cases, a people’s court, a people’s procuratorate, and a public security authority may, according to the actual circumstances, investigate the growth, cause of crime, guardianship, education, and other aspects of the juvenile criminal suspect or defendant.
Article 269 An arrest of a juvenile criminal suspect or defendant shall be under strict control. Before approving or deciding an arrest, a people’s procuratorate or a people’s court shall arraign a juvenile criminal suspect or defendant and hear the opinion of his or her defense lawyer.
Juveniles and adults who are detained or arrested or are serving criminal penalties shall be held in custody, managed, and educated separately.
Article 270 During the interrogation and trial of a juvenile criminal case, the legal representative of a juvenile criminal suspect or defendant shall be notified to be present. If such notification is impossible, the legal representative is unable to be present, or the legal representative is an accomplice, any other adult relative of the juvenile criminal suspect or defendant or a representative of his or her school or employer, a basic organization at the place of his or her residence, or a juvenile protection organization may be notified to be present, and relevant circumstances shall be recorded. The present legal representative may exercise the procedural rights of the juvenile criminal suspect or defendant on his or her behalf.
Deeming that the case-handling personnel have infringed upon the juvenile’s lawful rights and interests in the course of interrogation or trial, the present legal representative or other person may present an opinion. The interrogation or court transcripts shall be handed over to the present legal representative or other person for reading or be read out to the present legal representative or other person.
When a female juvenile criminal suspect is interrogated, there shall be a female staff member present.
In the trial of a juvenile criminal case, after the juvenile defendant delivers his or her closing statement, his or her legal representative may make a supplementary statement.
Paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 hereof shall apply to the interview or questioning of juvenile victims and witnesses.
Article 271 When a juvenile is suspected of a crime in Chapter IV, V, or VI of the Specific Provisions of the Criminal Law and may be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of one year or a lighter punishment, if the prosecution conditions are met but the juvenile suspect has shown repentance, a people’s procuratorate may make a conditional non-prosecution decision. Before making a conditional non-prosecution decision, the people’s procuratorate shall hear the opinions of the public security authority and the victim.
Where the public security authority requests reconsideration or review or the victim files a petition against the conditional non-prosecution decision, the provisions of Articles 175 and 176 of this Law shall apply.
Where the juvenile criminal suspect or his or her legal representative raises any objection to the conditional non-prosecution decision of the people’s procuratorate, the people’s procuratorate shall make a decision to initiate a public prosecution.
Article 272 During the probation period for conditional non-prosecution, a people’s procuratorate shall supervise and inspect a juvenile criminal suspect who is not prosecuted under conditions. The guardian of the juvenile criminal suspect shall strengthen control and education of the juvenile criminal suspect and cooperate with the people’s procuratorate in supervision and inspection.
The probation period for conditional non-prosecution shall range from six months to one year, starting from the day when the people’s procuratorate makes a conditional non-prosecution decision.
A juvenile criminal suspect who is not prosecuted under conditions shall comply with the following provisions:
(1) abiding by laws and regulations and obeying supervision; 
(2) reporting his or her activities as required by the inspection authority;
(3) obtaining the approval of the inspection authority before leaving the city or county where he or she resides or relocating in another place; and
(4) receiving correction and education as required by the inspection authority.
Article 273 For a juvenile criminal suspect who is not prosecuted under conditions, a people’s procuratorate shall revoke the conditional non-prosecution decision and initiate a public prosecution under any of the following circumstances during the probation period:
(1) the juvenile criminal suspect commits a new crime, or it is discovered that another crime committed before the conditional non-prosecution decision is made needs to be prosecuted; or
(2) the juvenile criminal suspect seriously violates the provisions on public security administration or the provisions of the inspection authority on supervising and administering conditional non-prosecution.
Where a juvenile criminal suspect who is not prosecuted under conditions does not fall any of the above circumstances during the probation period, upon expiration of the probation period, the people’s procuratorate shall make a non-prosecution decision.
Article 274 A case may not be tried openly if the defendant has not attained the age of 18 at the time of trial. However, with the consent of the juvenile defendant or his or her legal representative, the juvenile defendant’s school and a juvenile protection organization may send representatives to be present.
Article 275 Where a juvenile has not attained the age of 18 when committing a crime and is sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of five years or a lighter punishment, the related criminal records shall be sealed for preservation.
The sealed criminal records may not be provided to any entity or individual, unless as needed for a judicial authority to handle cases or for consultation by relevant entities according to relevant state provisions. Entities legally consulting such records shall keep record information confidential.
Article 276 In the handling of juvenile criminal cases, matters not included in this Chapter shall be handled under other provisions of this Law.
Chapter II: Procedures for Public Prosecution Cases Where Parties Have Reached Settlement
Article 277 In the following cases of public prosecution, if the criminal suspect or defendant has showed genuine repentance and obtained forgiveness from the victim by making compensation or an apology to the victim, and the victim voluntarily agrees on a settlement, both parties may reach a settlement:
(1) a case regarding a crime which arises from civil disputes as described in Chapter IV or V of the Specific Provisions of the Criminal Law and is punishable by fixed-term imprisonment of three years or a lighter penalty; or
(2) a case regarding a negligent crime, other than a crime of malfeasance, which is punishable by fixed-term imprisonment of seven years or a lighter penalty.
If a criminal suspect or defendant once committed any intentional crime in the past five years, the procedures in this Chapter shall not apply.
Article 278 When both parties have reached a settlement, a public security authority, a people’s procuratorate, or a people’s court shall hear the opinions of the parties and other relevant persons, examine whether the settlement is reached voluntarily and legally, and preside at the preparation of a settlement agreement.
Article 279 For a case where a settlement agreement is reached, a public security authority may provide a leniency suggestion to the people’s procuratorate. A people’s procuratorate may provide a leniency suggestion to the people’s court; and, if the circumstances of a crime are minor and no criminal punishment is necessary, may make a decision not to initiate a public prosecution. A people’s court may render a lenient sentence to a defendant in accordance with law.
Chapter III: Confiscation Procedures for Illegal Income in Cases Where a Criminal Suspect or Defendant Escapes or Dies
Article 280 Where, in a case regarding a serious crime such as embezzlement, bribery, or terrorist activities, a criminal suspect or defendant escapes and cannot be present in court after being wanted for a year, or a criminal suspect or defendant dies, if his or her illegal income and other property involved in the case shall be recovered in accordance with the Criminal Law, a people’s procuratorate may file an application with a people’s court for confiscation of illegal income.
Deeming that the circumstances as mentioned in the preceding paragraph exist, a public security authority shall prepare a written opinion on confiscation of illegal income and transfer it to a people’s procuratorate.
An application for confiscation of illegal income shall provide evidential materials related to the facts of a crime and illegal income and state the types, quantities, and locations of property as well as any seizure, impoundment, or freezing measures taken.
When necessary, a people’s court may seize, impound, or freeze the property to be confiscated upon application.
Article 281 An application for confiscation of illegal income shall be heard by a collegial panel formed by the intermediate people’s court at the place of crime or place of residence of a criminal suspect or defendant.
After accepting an application for confiscation of illegal income, a people’s court shall make a public announcement. The public announcement period shall be six months. The close relatives of a criminal suspect or defendant and other interested parties shall have the right to apply for participating in the procedure, and may retain litigation representatives to participate in the procedure.
A people’s court shall hear an application for confiscation of illegal income upon expiration of the public announcement period. If any interested party participates in the procedure, the people’s court shall hold a court session to hear the application.
Article 282 A people’s court shall render a ruling to confiscate illegal income and other property involved in the case that are confirmed at trial, except those legally returned to the victims; or, for property which shall not be recovered, shall render a ruling to dismiss the application and terminate the seizure, impound, or freezing measure taken.
Against a ruling rendered by a people’s court under the preceding paragraph, the close relatives of a criminal suspect or defendant, other interested parties, or the people’s procuratorate may appeal.
Article 283 Where a fugitive criminal suspect or defendant voluntarily surrenders himself or herself or is captured during the trial period, a people’s court shall terminate the trial.
Where the property of a criminal suspect or defendant is erroneously confiscated, such property shall be returned, and compensation shall be made.
Chapter IV: Procedures for Involuntary Medical Treatment of Mental Patients Legally Exempted from Criminal Liability
Article 284 A mental patient who has committed any violent behavior compromising public security or seriously endangering the personal safety of citizens and is legally exempted from criminal responsibility after identification under statutory procedures shall be subject to involuntary medical treatment if the mental patient may continue to endanger the society.
Article 285 Whether a mental patient is subject to involuntary medical treatment under this Chapter shall be decided by a people’s court.
A public security authority which discovers that a mental patient meets the conditions for involuntary medical treatment shall prepare a written opinion on involuntary medical treatment, and transfer it to the people’s procuratorate. For a written opinion on involuntary medical treatment transferred by a public security authority or after discovering that a mental patient meets the conditions for involuntary medical treatment in the process of examination and prosecution, a people’s procuratorate shall file an application for involuntary medical treatment with a people’s court. A people’s court which discovers that a defendant meets the conditions for involuntary medical treatment in the process of trial of a case may make an involuntary medical treatment decision.
For a mental patient who has committed violent behavior, before a people’s court makes an involuntary medical treatment decision, a public security authority may take interim protective restraint measures.
Article 286 After accepting an application for involuntary medical treatment, a people’s court shall form a collegial panel to try the case.
In the trial of a case regarding involuntary medical treatment, a people’s court shall notify the legal representative of the respondent or defendant to be present. If the respondent or defendant has not retained a litigation representative, the people’s court shall notify a legal aid agency to assign a lawyer to provide legal assistance for him or her.
Article 287 Deeming at trial that the respondent or defendant meets the conditions for involuntary medical treatment, a people’s court shall make an involuntary medical treatment decision within one month.
Against an involuntary medical treatment decision, the person subject to involuntary medical treatment as decided, the victim, or the legal representative or close relative thereof may apply to the people’s court at the next higher level for reconsideration.
Article 288 Involuntary medical treatment institutions shall regularly diagnose and assess persons subject to involuntary medical treatment. For those who are no longer dangerous to personal safety and no longer need involuntary medical treatment, involuntary medical treatment institutions shall prepare opinions on termination of involuntary medical treatment in a timely manner and report such opinions to the people’s courts which made the involuntary medical treatment decisions for approval.
Persons subject to involuntary medical treatment and their close relatives shall have the right to apply for termination of involuntary medical treatment.
Article 289 A people’s procuratorate shall oversee decisions and execution of involuntary medical treatment.
Supplementary Provisions
Article 290 The security departments of the armed forces shall have the authority to investigate criminal cases that occur within the armed forces.
Crimes committed by convicts within a prison shall be investigated by the prison.
The handling of criminal cases by the security departments of the armed forces and by prisons shall be governed by the relevant provisions of this Law.
【法规标题】中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法(2012修正)
中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法
(1979年7月1日第五届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过 根据1996年3月17日第八届全国人民代表大会第四次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法〉的决定》第一次修正 根据2012年3月14日第十一届全国人民代表大会第五次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法〉的决定》第二次修正)

目 录

  第一编 总 则
  第一章 任务和基本原则
  第二章 管 辖
  第三章 回 避
  第四章 辩护与代理
  第五章 证 据
  第六章 强制措施
  第七章 附带民事诉讼
  第八章 期间、送达
  第九章 其他规定
  第二编 立案、侦查和提起公诉
  第一章 立 案
  第二章 侦 查
  第一节 一般规定
  第二节 讯问犯罪嫌疑人
  第三节 询问证人
  第四节 勘验、检查
  第五节 搜 查
  第六节 查封、扣押物证、书证
  第七节 鉴 定
  第八节 技术侦查措施
  第九节 通 缉
  第十节 侦查终结
  第十一节 人民检察院对直接受理的案件的侦查
  第三章 提起公诉
  第三编 审 判
  第一章 审判组织
  第二章 第一审程序
  第一节 公诉案件
  第二节 自诉案件
  第三节 简易程序
  第三章 第二审程序
  第四章 死刑复核程序
  第五章 审判监督程序
  第四编 执 行
  第五编 特别程序
  第一章 未成年人刑事案件诉讼程序
  第二章 当事人和解的公诉案件诉讼程序
  第三章 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿、死亡案件违法所得的没收程序
  第四章 依法不负刑事责任的精神病人的强制医疗程序
  附 则
第一编 总 则
第一章 任务和基本原则
  第一条 为了保证刑法的正确实施,惩罚犯罪,保护人民,保障国家安全和社会公共安全,维护社会主义社会秩序,根据宪法,制定本法。
  第二条 中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法的任务,是保证准确、及时地查明犯罪事实,正确应用法律,惩罚犯罪分子,保障无罪的人不受刑事追究,教育公民自觉遵守法律,积极同犯罪行为作斗争,维护社会主义法制,尊重和保障人权,保护公民的人身权利、财产权利、民主权利和其他权利,保障社会主义建设事业的顺利进行。
  第三条 对刑事案件的侦查、拘留、执行逮捕、预审,由公安机关负责。检察、批准逮捕、检察机关直接受理的案件的侦查、提起公诉,由人民检察院负责。审判由人民法院负责。除法律特别规定的以外,其他任何机关、团体和个人都无权行使这些权力。
  人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须严格遵守本法和其他法律的有关规定。
  第四条 国家安全机关依照法律规定,办理危害国家安全的刑事案件,行使与公安机关相同的职权。
  第五条 人民法院依照法律规定独立行使审判权,人民检察院依照法律规定独立行使检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。
  第六条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,必须依靠群众,必须以事实为根据,以法律为准绳。对于一切公民,在适用法律上一律平等,在法律面前,不允许有任何特权。
  第七条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关进行刑事诉讼,应当分工负责,互相配合,互相制约,以保证准确有效地执行法律。
  第八条 人民检察院依法对刑事诉讼实行法律监督。
  第九条 各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
  在少数民族聚居或者多民族杂居的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审讯,用当地通用的文字发布判决书、布告和其他文件。
  第十条 人民法院审判案件,实行两审终审制。
  第十一条 人民法院审判案件,除本法另有规定的以外,一律公开进行。被告人有权获得辩护,人民法院有义务保证被告人获得辩护。
  第十二条 未经人民法院依法判决,对任何人都不得确定有罪。
  第十三条 人民法院审判案件,依照本法实行人民陪审员陪审的制度。
  第十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他诉讼参与人依法享有的辩护权和其他诉讼权利。
  诉讼参与人对于审判人员、检察人员和侦查人员侵犯公民诉讼权利和人身侮辱的行为,有权提出控告。
  第十五条 有下列情形之一的,不追究刑事责任,已经追究的,应当撤销案件,或者不起诉,或者终止审理,或者宣告无罪:
  (一)情节显著轻微、危害不大,不认为是犯罪的;
  (二)犯罪已过追诉时效期限的;
  (三)经特赦令免除刑罚的;
  (四)依照刑法告诉才处理的犯罪,没有告诉或者撤回告诉的;
  (五)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人死亡的;
  (六)其他法律规定免予追究刑事责任的。
  第十六条 对于外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,适用本法的规定。
  对于享有外交特权和豁免权的外国人犯罪应当追究刑事责任的,通过外交途径解决。
  第十七条 根据中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约,或者按照互惠原则,我国司法机关和外国司法机关可以相互请求刑事司法协助。
第二章 管 辖
  第十八条 刑事案件的侦查由公安机关进行,法律另有规定的除外。
  贪污贿赂犯罪,国家工作人员的渎职犯罪,国家机关工作人员利用职权实施的非法拘禁、刑讯逼供、报复陷害、非法搜查的侵犯公民人身权利的犯罪以及侵犯公民民主权利的犯罪,由人民检察院立案侦查。对于国家机关工作人员利用职权实施的其他重大的犯罪案件,需要由人民检察院直接受理的时候,经省级以上人民检察院决定,可以由人民检察院立案侦查。
  自诉案件,由人民法院直接受理。
  第十九条 基层人民法院管辖第一审普通刑事案件,但是依照本法由上级人民法院管辖的除外。
  第二十条 中级人民法院管辖下列第一审刑事案件:
  (一)危害国家安全、恐怖活动案件;
  (二)可能判处无期徒刑、死刑的案件。
  第二十一条 高级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全省(自治区、直辖市)性的重大刑事案件。
  第二十二条 最高人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件,是全国性的重大刑事案件。
  第二十三条 上级人民法院在必要的时候,可以审判下级人民法院管辖的第一审刑事案件;下级人民法院认为案情重大、复杂需要由上级人民法院审判的第一审刑事案件,可以请求移送上一级人民法院审判。
  第二十四条 刑事案件由犯罪地的人民法院管辖。如果由被告人居住地的人民法院审判更为适宜的,可以由被告人居住地的人民法院管辖。
  第二十五条 几个同级人民法院都有权管辖的案件,由最初受理的人民法院审判。在必要的时候,可以移送主要犯罪地的人民法院审判。
  第二十六条 上级人民法院可以指定下级人民法院审判管辖不明的案件,也可以指定下级人民法院将案件移送其他人民法院审判。
  第二十七条 专门人民法院案件的管辖另行规定。
第三章 回 避
  第二十八条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员有下列情形之一的,应当自行回避,当事人及其法定代理人也有权要求他们回避:
  (一)是本案的当事人或者是当事人的近亲属的;
  (二)本人或者他的近亲属和本案有利害关系的;
  (三)担任过本案的证人、鉴定人、辩护人、诉讼代理人的;
  (四)与本案当事人有其他关系,可能影响公正处理案件的。
  第二十九条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员不得接受当事人及其委托的人的请客送礼,不得违反规定会见当事人及其委托的人。
  审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员违反前款规定的,应当依法追究法律责任。当事人及其法定代理人有权要求他们回避。
  第三十条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员的回避,应当分别由院长、检察长、公安机关负责人决定;院长的回避,由本院审判委员会决定;检察长和公安机关负责人的回避,由同级人民检察院检察委员会决定。
  对侦查人员的回避作出决定前,侦查人员不能停止对案件的侦查。
  对驳回申请回避的决定,当事人及其法定代理人可以申请复议一次。
  第三十一条 本章关于回避的规定适用于书记员、翻译人员和鉴定人。
  辩护人、诉讼代理人可以依照本章的规定要求回避、申请复议。
第四章 辩护与代理
  第三十二条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人除自己行使辩护权以外,还可以委托一至二人作为辩护人。下列的人可以被委托为辩护人:
  (一)律师;
  (二)人民团体或者犯罪嫌疑人、被告人所在单位推荐的人;
  (三)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的监护人、亲友。
  正在被执行刑罚或者依法被剥夺、限制人身自由的人,不得担任辩护人。
  第三十三条 犯罪嫌疑人自被侦查机关第一次讯问或者采取强制措施之日起,有权委托辩护人;在侦查期间,只能委托律师作为辩护人。被告人有权随时委托辩护人。
  侦查机关在第一次讯问犯罪嫌疑人或者对犯罪嫌疑人采取强制措施的时候,应当告知犯罪嫌疑人有权委托辩护人。人民检察院自收到移送审查起诉的案件材料之日起三日以内,应当告知犯罪嫌疑人有权委托辩护人。人民法院自受理案件之日起三日以内,应当告知被告人有权委托辩护人。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在押期间要求委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当及时转达其要求。
  犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在押的,也可以由其监护人、近亲属代为委托辩护人。
  辩护人接受犯罪嫌疑人、被告人委托后,应当及时告知办理案件的机关。
  第三十四条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人因经济困难或者其他原因没有委托辩护人的,本人及其近亲属可以向法律援助机构提出申请。对符合法律援助条件的,法律援助机构应当指派律师为其提供辩护。
  犯罪嫌疑人、被告人是盲、聋、哑人,或者是尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人,没有委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供辩护。
  犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可能被判处无期徒刑、死刑,没有委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供辩护。
  第三十五条 辩护人的责任是根据事实和法律,提出犯罪嫌疑人、被告人无罪、罪轻或者减轻、免除其刑事责任的材料和意见,维护犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利和其他合法权益。
  第三十六条 辩护律师在侦查期间可以为犯罪嫌疑人提供法律帮助;代理申诉、控告;申请变更强制措施;向侦查机关了解犯罪嫌疑人涉嫌的罪名和案件有关情况,提出意见。
  第三十七条 辩护律师可以同在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见和通信。其他辩护人经人民法院、人民检察院许可,也可以同在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见和通信。
  辩护律师持律师执业证书、律师事务所证明和委托书或者法律援助公函要求会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的,看守所应当及时安排会见,至迟不得超过四十八小时。
  危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、特别重大贿赂犯罪案件,在侦查期间辩护律师会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人,应当经侦查机关许可。上述案件,侦查机关应当事先通知看守所。
  辩护律师会见在押的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以了解案件有关情况,提供法律咨询等;自案件移送审查起诉之日起,可以向犯罪嫌疑人、被告人核实有关证据。辩护律师会见犯罪嫌疑人、被告人时不被监听。
  辩护律师同被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人会见、通信,适用第一款、第三款、第四款的规定。
  第三十八条 辩护律师自人民检察院对案件审查起诉之日起,可以查阅、摘抄、复制本案的案卷材料。其他辩护人经人民法院、人民检察院许可,也可以查阅、摘抄、复制上述材料。
  第三十九条 辩护人认为在侦查、审查起诉期间公安机关、人民检察院收集的证明犯罪嫌疑人、被告人无罪或者罪轻的证据材料未提交的,有权申请人民检察院、人民法院调取。
  第四十条 辩护人收集的有关犯罪嫌疑人不在犯罪现场、未达到刑事责任年龄、属于依法不负刑事责任的精神病人的证据,应当及时告知公安机关、人民检察院。
  第四十一条 辩护律师经证人或者其他有关单位和个人同意,可以向他们收集与本案有关的材料,也可以申请人民检察院、人民法院收集、调取证据,或者申请人民法院通知证人出庭作证。
  辩护律师经人民检察院或者人民法院许可,并且经被害人或者其近亲属、被害人提供的证人同意,可以向他们收集与本案有关的材料。
  第四十二条 辩护人或者其他任何人,不得帮助犯罪嫌疑人、被告人隐匿、毁灭、伪造证据或者串供,不得威胁、引诱证人作伪证以及进行其他干扰司法机关诉讼活动的行为。
  违反前款规定的,应当依法追究法律责任,辩护人涉嫌犯罪的,应当由办理辩护人所承办案件的侦查机关以外的侦查机关办理。辩护人是律师的,应当及时通知其所在的律师事务所或者所属的律师协会。
  第四十三条 在审判过程中,被告人可以拒绝辩护人继续为他辩护,也可以另行委托辩护人辩护。
  第四十四条 公诉案件的被害人及其法定代理人或者近亲属,附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人,自案件移送审查起诉之日起,有权委托诉讼代理人。自诉案件的自诉人及其法定代理人,附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人,有权随时委托诉讼代理人。
  人民检察院自收到移送审查起诉的案件材料之日起三日以内,应当告知被害人及其法定代理人或者其近亲属、附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人有权委托诉讼代理人。人民法院自受理自诉案件之日起三日以内,应当告知自诉人及其法定代理人、附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人有权委托诉讼代理人。
  第四十五条 委托诉讼代理人,参照本法第三十二条的规定执行。
  第四十六条 辩护律师对在执业活动中知悉的委托人的有关情况和信息,有权予以保密。但是,辩护律师在执业活动中知悉委托人或者其他人,准备或者正在实施危害国家安全、公共安全以及严重危害他人人身安全的犯罪的,应当及时告知司法机关。
  第四十七条 辩护人、诉讼代理人认为公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院及其工作人员阻碍其依法行使诉讼权利的,有权向同级或者上一级人民检察院申诉或者控告。人民检察院对申诉或者控告应当及时进行审查,情况属实的,通知有关机关予以纠正。
第五章 证 据
  第四十八条 可以用于证明案件事实的材料,都是证据。
  证据包括:
  (一)物证;
  (二)书证;
  (三)证人证言;
  (四)被害人陈述;
  (五)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和辩解;
  (六)鉴定意见;
  (七)勘验、检查、辨认、侦查实验等笔录;
  (八)视听资料、电子数据。
  证据必须经过查证属实,才能作为定案的根据。
  第四十九条 公诉案件中被告人有罪的举证责任由人民检察院承担,自诉案件中被告人有罪的举证责任由自诉人承担。
  第五十条 审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员必须依照法定程序,收集能够证实犯罪嫌疑人、被告人有罪或者无罪、犯罪情节轻重的各种证据。严禁刑讯逼供和以威胁、引诱、欺骗以及其他非法方法收集证据,不得强迫任何人证实自己有罪。必须保证一切与案件有关或者了解案情的公民,有客观地充分地提供证据的条件,除特殊情况外,可以吸收他们协助调查。
  第五十一条 公安机关提请批准逮捕书、人民检察院起诉书、人民法院判决书,必须忠实于事实真象。故意隐瞒事实真象的,应当追究责任。
  第五十二条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关有权向有关单位和个人收集、调取证据。有关单位和个人应当如实提供证据。
  行政机关在行政执法和查办案件过程中收集的物证、书证、视听资料、电子数据等证据材料,在刑事诉讼中可以作为证据使用。
  对涉及国家秘密、商业秘密、个人隐私的证据,应当保密。
  凡是伪造证据、隐匿证据或者毁灭证据的,无论属于何方,必须受法律追究。
  第五十三条 对一切案件的判处都要重证据,重调查研究,不轻信口供。只有被告人供述,没有其他证据的,不能认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚;没有被告人供述,证据确实、充分的,可以认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚。
  证据确实、充分,应当符合以下条件:
  (一)定罪量刑的事实都有证据证明;
  (二)据以定案的证据均经法定程序查证属实;
  (三)综合全案证据,对所认定事实已排除合理怀疑。
  第五十四条 采用刑讯逼供等非法方法收集的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人供述和采用暴力、威胁等非法方法收集的证人证言、被害人陈述,应当予以排除。收集物证、书证不符合法定程序,可能严重影响司法公正的,应当予以补正或者作出合理解释;不能补正或者作出合理解释的,对该证据应当予以排除。
  在侦查、审查起诉、审判时发现有应当排除的证据的,应当依法予以排除,不得作为起诉意见、起诉决定和判决的依据。
  第五十五条 人民检察院接到报案、控告、举报或者发现侦查人员以非法方法收集证据的,应当进行调查核实。对于确有以非法方法收集证据情形的,应当提出纠正意见;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第五十六条 法庭审理过程中,审判人员认为可能存在本法第五十四条规定的以非法方法收集证据情形的,应当对证据收集的合法性进行法庭调查。
  当事人及其辩护人、诉讼代理人有权申请人民法院对以非法方法收集的证据依法予以排除。申请排除以非法方法收集的证据的,应当提供相关线索或者材料。
  第五十七条 在对证据收集的合法性进行法庭调查的过程中,人民检察院应当对证据收集的合法性加以证明。
  现有证据材料不能证明证据收集的合法性的,人民检察院可以提请人民法院通知有关侦查人员或者其他人员出庭说明情况;人民法院可以通知有关侦查人员或者其他人员出庭说明情况。有关侦查人员或者其他人员也可以要求出庭说明情况。经人民法院通知,有关人员应当出庭。
  第五十八条 对于经过法庭审理,确认或者不能排除存在本法第五十四条规定的以非法方法收集证据情形的,对有关证据应当予以排除。
  第五十九条 证人证言必须在法庭上经过公诉人、被害人和被告人、辩护人双方质证并且查实以后,才能作为定案的根据。法庭查明证人有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证的时候,应当依法处理。
  第六十条 凡是知道案件情况的人,都有作证的义务。
  生理上、精神上有缺陷或者年幼,不能辨别是非、不能正确表达的人,不能作证人。
  第六十一条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当保障证人及其近亲属的安全。
  对证人及其近亲属进行威胁、侮辱、殴打或者打击报复,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任;尚不够刑事处罚的,依法给予治安管理处罚。
  第六十二条 对于危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、黑社会性质的组织犯罪、毒品犯罪等案件,证人、鉴定人、被害人因在诉讼中作证,本人或者其近亲属的人身安全面临危险的,人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关应当采取以下一项或者多项保护措施:
  (一)不公开真实姓名、住址和工作单位等个人信息;
  (二)采取不暴露外貌、真实声音等出庭作证措施;
  (三)禁止特定的人员接触证人、鉴定人、被害人及其近亲属;
  (四)对人身和住宅采取专门性保护措施;
  (五)其他必要的保护措施。
  证人、鉴定人、被害人认为因在诉讼中作证,本人或者其近亲属的人身安全面临危险的,可以向人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关请求予以保护。
  人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关依法采取保护措施,有关单位和个人应当配合。
  第六十三条 证人因履行作证义务而支出的交通、住宿、就餐等费用,应当给予补助。证人作证的补助列入司法机关业务经费,由同级政府财政予以保障。
  有工作单位的证人作证,所在单位不得克扣或者变相克扣其工资、奖金及其他福利待遇。
第六章 强制措施
  第六十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关根据案件情况,对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可以拘传、取保候审或者监视居住。
  第六十五条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对有下列情形之一的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以取保候审:
  (一)可能判处管制、拘役或者独立适用附加刑的;
  (二)可能判处有期徒刑以上刑罚,采取取保候审不致发生社会危险性的;
  (三)患有严重疾病、生活不能自理,怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女,采取取保候审不致发生社会危险性的;
  (四)羁押期限届满,案件尚未办结,需要采取取保候审的。
  取保候审由公安机关执行。
  第六十六条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关决定对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人取保候审,应当责令犯罪嫌疑人、被告人提出保证人或者交纳保证金。
  第六十七条 保证人必须符合下列条件:
  (一)与本案无牵连;
  (二)有能力履行保证义务;
  (三)享有政治权利,人身自由未受到限制;
  (四)有固定的住处和收入。
  第六十八条 保证人应当履行以下义务:
  (一)监督被保证人遵守本法第六十九条的规定;
  (二)发现被保证人可能发生或者已经发生违反本法第六十九条规定的行为的,应当及时向执行机关报告。
  被保证人有违反本法第六十九条规定的行为,保证人未履行保证义务的,对保证人处以罚款,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第六十九条 被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当遵守以下规定:
  (一)未经执行机关批准不得离开所居住的市、县;
  (二)住址、工作单位和联系方式发生变动的,在二十四小时以内向执行机关报告;
  (三)在传讯的时候及时到案;
  (四)不得以任何形式干扰证人作证;
  (五)不得毁灭、伪造证据或者串供。
  人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关可以根据案件情况,责令被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人遵守以下一项或者多项规定:
  (一)不得进入特定的场所;
  (二)不得与特定的人员会见或者通信;
  (三)不得从事特定的活动;
  (四)将护照等出入境证件、驾驶证件交执行机关保存。
  被取保候审的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反前两款规定,已交纳保证金的,没收部分或者全部保证金,并且区别情形,责令犯罪嫌疑人、被告人具结悔过,重新交纳保证金、提出保证人,或者监视居住、予以逮捕。
  对违反取保候审规定,需要予以逮捕的,可以对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人先行拘留。
  第七十条 取保候审的决定机关应当综合考虑保证诉讼活动正常进行的需要,被取保候审人的社会危险性,案件的性质、情节,可能判处刑罚的轻重,被取保候审人的经济状况等情况,确定保证金的数额。
  提供保证金的人应当将保证金存入执行机关指定银行的专门账户。
  第七十一条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在取保候审期间未违反本法第六十九条规定的,取保候审结束的时候,凭解除取保候审的通知或者有关法律文书到银行领取退还的保证金。
  第七十二条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对符合逮捕条件,有下列情形之一的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以监视居住:
  (一)患有严重疾病、生活不能自理的;
  (二)怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女;
  (三)系生活不能自理的人的唯一扶养人;
  (四)因为案件的特殊情况或者办理案件的需要,采取监视居住措施更为适宜的;
  (五)羁押期限届满,案件尚未办结,需要采取监视居住措施的。
  对符合取保候审条件,但犯罪嫌疑人、被告人不能提出保证人,也不交纳保证金的,可以监视居住。
  监视居住由公安机关执行。
  第七十三条 监视居住应当在犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的住处执行;无固定住处的,可以在指定的居所执行。对于涉嫌危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、特别重大贿赂犯罪,在住处执行可能有碍侦查的,经上一级人民检察院或者公安机关批准,也可以在指定的居所执行。但是,不得在羁押场所、专门的办案场所执行。
  指定居所监视居住的,除无法通知的以外,应当在执行监视居住后二十四小时以内,通知被监视居住人的家属。
  被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人委托辩护人,适用本法第三十三条的规定。
  人民检察院对指定居所监视居住的决定和执行是否合法实行监督。
  第七十四条 指定居所监视居住的期限应当折抵刑期。被判处管制的,监视居住一日折抵刑期一日;被判处拘役、有期徒刑的,监视居住二日折抵刑期一日。
  第七十五条 被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当遵守以下规定:
  (一)未经执行机关批准不得离开执行监视居住的处所;
  (二)未经执行机关批准不得会见他人或者通信;
  (三)在传讯的时候及时到案;
  (四)不得以任何形式干扰证人作证;
  (五)不得毁灭、伪造证据或者串供;
  (六)将护照等出入境证件、身份证件、驾驶证件交执行机关保存。
  被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反前款规定,情节严重的,可以予以逮捕;需要予以逮捕的,可以对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人先行拘留。
  第七十六条 执行机关对被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,可以采取电子监控、不定期检查等监视方法对其遵守监视居住规定的情况进行监督;在侦查期间,可以对被监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人的通信进行监控。
  第七十七条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人取保候审最长不得超过十二个月,监视居住最长不得超过六个月。
  在取保候审、监视居住期间,不得中断对案件的侦查、起诉和审理。对于发现不应当追究刑事责任或者取保候审、监视居住期限届满的,应当及时解除取保候审、监视居住。解除取保候审、监视居住,应当及时通知被取保候审、监视居住人和有关单位。
  第七十八条 逮捕犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,必须经过人民检察院批准或者人民法院决定,由公安机关执行。
  第七十九条 对有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处徒刑以上刑罚的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,采取取保候审尚不足以防止发生下列社会危险性的,应当予以逮捕:
  (一)可能实施新的犯罪的;
  (二)有危害国家安全、公共安全或者社会秩序的现实危险的;
  (三)可能毁灭、伪造证据,干扰证人作证或者串供的;
  (四)可能对被害人、举报人、控告人实施打击报复的;
  (五)企图自杀或者逃跑的。
  对有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处十年有期徒刑以上刑罚的,或者有证据证明有犯罪事实,可能判处徒刑以上刑罚,曾经故意犯罪或者身份不明的,应当予以逮捕。
  被取保候审、监视居住的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人违反取保候审、监视居住规定,情节严重的,可以予以逮捕。
  第八十条 公安机关对于现行犯或者重大嫌疑分子,如果有下列情形之一的,可以先行拘留:
  (一)正在预备犯罪、实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
  (二)被害人或者在场亲眼看见的人指认他犯罪的;
  (三)在身边或者住处发现有犯罪证据的;
  (四)犯罪后企图自杀、逃跑或者在逃的;
  (五)有毁灭、伪造证据或者串供可能的;
  (六)不讲真实姓名、住址,身份不明的;
  (七)有流窜作案、多次作案、结伙作案重大嫌疑的。
  第八十一条 公安机关在异地执行拘留、逮捕的时候,应当通知被拘留、逮捕人所在地的公安机关,被拘留、逮捕人所在地的公安机关应当予以配合。
  第八十二条 对于有下列情形的人,任何公民都可以立即扭送公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院处理:
  (一)正在实行犯罪或者在犯罪后即时被发觉的;
  (二)通缉在案的;
  (三)越狱逃跑的;
  (四)正在被追捕的。
  第八十三条 公安机关拘留人的时候,必须出示拘留证。
  拘留后,应当立即将被拘留人送看守所羁押,至迟不得超过二十四小时。除无法通知或者涉嫌危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪通知可能有碍侦查的情形以外,应当在拘留后二十四小时以内,通知被拘留人的家属。有碍侦查的情形消失以后,应当立即通知被拘留人的家属。
  第八十四条 公安机关对被拘留的人,应当在拘留后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当拘留的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
  第八十五条 公安机关要求逮捕犯罪嫌疑人的时候,应当写出提请批准逮捕书,连同案卷材料、证据,一并移送同级人民检察院审查批准。必要的时候,人民检察院可以派人参加公安机关对于重大案件的讨论。
  第八十六条 人民检察院审查批准逮捕,可以讯问犯罪嫌疑人;有下列情形之一的,应当讯问犯罪嫌疑人:
  (一)对是否符合逮捕条件有疑问的;
  (二)犯罪嫌疑人要求向检察人员当面陈述的;
  (三)侦查活动可能有重大违法行为的。
  人民检察院审查批准逮捕,可以询问证人等诉讼参与人,听取辩护律师的意见;辩护律师提出要求的,应当听取辩护律师的意见。
  第八十七条 人民检察院审查批准逮捕犯罪嫌疑人由检察长决定。重大案件应当提交检察委员会讨论决定。
  第八十八条 人民检察院对于公安机关提请批准逮捕的案件进行审查后,应当根据情况分别作出批准逮捕或者不批准逮捕的决定。对于批准逮捕的决定,公安机关应当立即执行,并且将执行情况及时通知人民检察院。对于不批准逮捕的,人民检察院应当说明理由,需要补充侦查的,应当同时通知公安机关。
  第八十九条 公安机关对被拘留的人,认为需要逮捕的,应当在拘留后的三日以内,提请人民检察院审查批准。在特殊情况下,提请审查批准的时间可以延长一日至四日。
  对于流窜作案、多次作案、结伙作案的重大嫌疑分子,提请审查批准的时间可以延长至三十日。
  人民检察院应当自接到公安机关提请批准逮捕书后的七日以内,作出批准逮捕或者不批准逮捕的决定。人民检察院不批准逮捕的,公安机关应当在接到通知后立即释放,并且将执行情况及时通知人民检察院。对于需要继续侦查,并且符合取保候审、监视居住条件的,依法取保候审或者监视居住。
  第九十条 公安机关对人民检察院不批准逮捕的决定,认为有错误的时候,可以要求复议,但是必须将被拘留的人立即释放。如果意见不被接受,可以向上一级人民检察院提请复核。上级人民检察院应当立即复核,作出是否变更的决定,通知下级人民检察院和公安机关执行。
  第九十一条 公安机关逮捕人的时候,必须出示逮捕证。
  逮捕后,应当立即将被逮捕人送看守所羁押。除无法通知的以外,应当在逮捕后二十四小时以内,通知被逮捕人的家属。
  第九十二条 人民法院、人民检察院对于各自决定逮捕的人,公安机关对于经人民检察院批准逮捕的人,都必须在逮捕后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当逮捕的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
  第九十三条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被逮捕后,人民检察院仍应当对羁押的必要性进行审查。对不需要继续羁押的,应当建议予以释放或者变更强制措施。有关机关应当在十日以内将处理情况通知人民检察院。
  第九十四条 人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关如果发现对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人采取强制措施不当的,应当及时撤销或者变更。公安机关释放被逮捕的人或者变更逮捕措施的,应当通知原批准的人民检察院。
  第九十五条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人及其法定代理人、近亲属或者辩护人有权申请变更强制措施。人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关收到申请后,应当在三日以内作出决定;不同意变更强制措施的,应当告知申请人,并说明不同意的理由。
  第九十六条 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人被羁押的案件,不能在本法规定的侦查羁押、审查起诉、一审、二审期限内办结的,对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当予以释放;需要继续查证、审理的,对犯罪嫌疑人、被告人可以取保候审或者监视居住。
  第九十七条 人民法院、人民检察院或者公安机关对被采取强制措施法定期限届满的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,应当予以释放、解除取保候审、监视居住或者依法变更强制措施。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人及其法定代理人、近亲属或者辩护人对于人民法院、人民检察院或者公安机关采取强制措施法定期限届满的,有权要求解除强制措施。
  第九十八条 人民检察院在审查批准逮捕工作中,如果发现公安机关的侦查活动有违法情况,应当通知公安机关予以纠正,公安机关应当将纠正情况通知人民检察院。
第七章 附带民事诉讼
  第九十九条 被害人由于被告人的犯罪行为而遭受物质损失的,在刑事诉讼过程中,有权提起附带民事诉讼。被害人死亡或者丧失行为能力的,被害人的法定代理人、近亲属有权提起附带民事诉讼。
  如果是国家财产、集体财产遭受损失的,人民检察院在提起公诉的时候,可以提起附带民事诉讼。
  第一百条 人民法院在必要的时候,可以采取保全措施,查封、扣押或者冻结被告人的财产。附带民事诉讼原告人或者人民检察院可以申请人民法院采取保全措施。人民法院采取保全措施,适用民事诉讼法的有关规定。
  第一百零一条 人民法院审理附带民事诉讼案件,可以进行调解,或者根据物质损失情况作出判决、裁定。
  第一百零二条 附带民事诉讼应当同刑事案件一并审判,只有为了防止刑事案件审判的过分迟延,才可以在刑事案件审判后,由同一审判组织继续审理附带民事诉讼。
第八章 期间、送达
  第一百零三条 期间以时、日、月计算。
  期间开始的时和日不算在期间以内。
  法定期间不包括路途上的时间。上诉状或者其他文件在期满前已经交邮的,不算过期。
  期间的最后一日为节假日的,以节假日后的第一日为期满日期,但犯罪嫌疑人、被告人或者罪犯在押期间,应当至期满之日为止,不得因节假日而延长。
  第一百零四条 当事人由于不能抗拒的原因或者有其他正当理由而耽误期限的,在障碍消除后五日以内,可以申请继续进行应当在期满以前完成的诉讼活动。
  前款申请是否准许,由人民法院裁定。
  第一百零五条 送达传票、通知书和其他诉讼文件应当交给收件人本人;如果本人不在,可以交给他的成年家属或者所在单位的负责人员代收。
  收件人本人或者代收人拒绝接收或者拒绝签名、盖章的时候,送达人可以邀请他的邻居或者其他见证人到场,说明情况,把文件留在他的住处,在送达证上记明拒绝的事由、送达的日期,由送达人签名,即认为已经送达。
第九章 其他规定
  第一百零六条 本法下列用语的含意是:
  (一)“侦查”是指公安机关、人民检察院在办理案件过程中,依照法律进行的专门调查工作和有关的强制性措施;
  (二)“当事人”是指被害人、自诉人、犯罪嫌疑人、被告人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和被告人;
  (三)“法定代理人”是指被代理人的父母、养父母、监护人和负有保护责任的机关、团体的代表;
  (四)“诉讼参与人”是指当事人、法定代理人、诉讼代理人、辩护人、证人、鉴定人和翻译人员;
  (五)“诉讼代理人”是指公诉案件的被害人及其法定代理人或者近亲属、自诉案件的自诉人及其法定代理人委托代为参加诉讼的人和附带民事诉讼的当事人及其法定代理人委托代为参加诉讼的人;
  (六)“近亲属”是指夫、妻、父、母、子、女、同胞兄弟姊妹。
第二编 立案、侦查和提起公诉
第一章 立 案
  第一百零七条 公安机关或者人民检察院发现犯罪事实或者犯罪嫌疑人,应当按照管辖范围,立案侦查。
  第一百零八条 任何单位和个人发现有犯罪事实或者犯罪嫌疑人,有权利也有义务向公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院报案或者举报。
  被害人对侵犯其人身、财产权利的犯罪事实或者犯罪嫌疑人,有权向公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院报案或者控告。
  公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院对于报案、控告、举报,都应当接受。对于不属于自己管辖的,应当移送主管机关处理,并且通知报案人、控告人、举报人;对于不属于自己管辖而又必须采取紧急措施的,应当先采取紧急措施,然后移送主管机关。
  犯罪人向公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院自首的,适用第三款规定。
  第一百零九条 报案、控告、举报可以用书面或者口头提出。接受口头报案、控告、举报的工作人员,应当写成笔录,经宣读无误后,由报案人、控告人、举报人签名或者盖章。
  接受控告、举报的工作人员,应当向控告人、举报人说明诬告应负的法律责任。但是,只要不是捏造事实,伪造证据,即使控告、举报的事实有出入,甚至是错告的,也要和诬告严格加以区别。
  公安机关、人民检察院或者人民法院应当保障报案人、控告人、举报人及其近亲属的安全。报案人、控告人、举报人如果不愿公开自己的姓名和报案、控告、举报的行为,应当为他保守秘密。
  第一百一十条 人民法院、人民检察院或者公安机关对于报案、控告、举报和自首的材料,应当按照管辖范围,迅速进行审查,认为有犯罪事实需要追究刑事责任的时候,应当立案;认为没有犯罪事实,或者犯罪事实显著轻微,不需要追究刑事责任的时候,不予立案,并且将不立案的原因通知控告人。控告人如果不服,可以申请复议。
  第一百一十一条 人民检察院认为公安机关对应当立案侦查的案件而不立案侦查的,或者被害人认为公安机关对应当立案侦查的案件而不立案侦查,向人民检察院提出的,人民检察院应当要求公安机关说明不立案的理由。人民检察院认为公安机关不立案理由不能成立的,应当通知公安机关立案,公安机关接到通知后应当立案。
  第一百一十二条 对于自诉案件,被害人有权向人民法院直接起诉。被害人死亡或者丧失行为能力的,被害人的法定代理人、近亲属有权向人民法院起诉。人民法院应当依法受理。
第二章 侦 查
第一节 一般规定
  第一百一十三条 公安机关对已经立案的刑事案件,应当进行侦查,收集、调取犯罪嫌疑人有罪或者无罪、罪轻或者罪重的证据材料。对现行犯或者重大嫌疑分子可以依法先行拘留,对符合逮捕条件的犯罪嫌疑人,应当依法逮捕。
  第一百一十四条 公安机关经过侦查,对有证据证明有犯罪事实的案件,应当进行预审,对收集、调取的证据材料予以核实。
  第一百一十五条 当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人、利害关系人对于司法机关及其工作人员有下列行为之一的,有权向该机关申诉或者控告:
  (一)采取强制措施法定期限届满,不予以释放、解除或者变更的;
  (二)应当退还取保候审保证金不退还的;
  (三)对与案件无关的财物采取查封、扣押、冻结措施的;
  (四)应当解除查封、扣押、冻结不解除的;
  (五)贪污、挪用、私分、调换、违反规定使用查封、扣押、冻结的财物的。
  受理申诉或者控告的机关应当及时处理。对处理不服的,可以向同级人民检察院申诉;人民检察院直接受理的案件,可以向上一级人民检察院申诉。人民检察院对申诉应当及时进行审查,情况属实的,通知有关机关予以纠正。
第二节 讯问犯罪嫌疑人
  第一百一十六条 讯问犯罪嫌疑人必须由人民检察院或者公安机关的侦查人员负责进行。讯问的时候,侦查人员不得少于二人。
  犯罪嫌疑人被送交看守所羁押以后,侦查人员对其进行讯问,应当在看守所内进行。
  第一百一十七条 对不需要逮捕、拘留的犯罪嫌疑人,可以传唤到犯罪嫌疑人所在市、县内的指定地点或者到他的住处进行讯问,但是应当出示人民检察院或者公安机关的证明文件。对在现场发现的犯罪嫌疑人,经出示工作证件,可以口头传唤,但应当在讯问笔录中注明。
  传唤、拘传持续的时间不得超过十二小时;案情特别重大、复杂,需要采取拘留、逮捕措施的,传唤、拘传持续的时间不得超过二十四小时。
  不得以连续传唤、拘传的形式变相拘禁犯罪嫌疑人。传唤、拘传犯罪嫌疑人,应当保证犯罪嫌疑人的饮食和必要的休息时间。
  第一百一十八条 侦查人员在讯问犯罪嫌疑人的时候,应当首先讯问犯罪嫌疑人是否有犯罪行为,让他陈述有罪的情节或者无罪的辩解,然后向他提出问题。犯罪嫌疑人对侦查人员的提问,应当如实回答。但是对与本案无关的问题,有拒绝回答的权利。
  侦查人员在讯问犯罪嫌疑人的时候,应当告知犯罪嫌疑人如实供述自己罪行可以从宽处理的法律规定。
  第一百一十九条 讯问聋、哑的犯罪嫌疑人,应当有通晓聋、哑手势的人参加,并且将这种情况记明笔录。
  第一百二十条 讯问笔录应当交犯罪嫌疑人核对,对于没有阅读能力的,应当向他宣读。如果记载有遗漏或者差错,犯罪嫌疑人可以提出补充或者改正。犯罪嫌疑人承认笔录没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。侦查人员也应当在笔录上签名。犯罪嫌疑人请求自行书写供述的,应当准许。必要的时候,侦查人员也可以要犯罪嫌疑人亲笔书写供词。
  第一百二十一条 侦查人员在讯问犯罪嫌疑人的时候,可以对讯问过程进行录音或者录像;对于可能判处无期徒刑、死刑的案件或者其他重大犯罪案件,应当对讯问过程进行录音或者录像。
  录音或者录像应当全程进行,保持完整性。
第三节 询问证人
  第一百二十二条 侦查人员询问证人,可以在现场进行,也可以到证人所在单位、住处或者证人提出的地点进行,在必要的时候,可以通知证人到人民检察院或者公安机关提供证言。在现场询问证人,应当出示工作证件,到证人所在单位、住处或者证人提出的地点询问证人,应当出示人民检察院或者公安机关的证明文件。
  询问证人应当个别进行。
  第一百二十三条 询问证人,应当告知他应当如实地提供证据、证言和有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证要负的法律责任。
  第一百二十四条 本法第一百二十条的规定,也适用于询问证人。
  第一百二十五条 询问被害人,适用本节各条规定。
第四节 勘验、检查
  第一百二十六条 侦查人员对于与犯罪有关的场所、物品、人身、尸体应当进行勘验或者检查。在必要的时候,可以指派或者聘请具有专门知识的人,在侦查人员的主持下进行勘验、检查。
  第一百二十七条 任何单位和个人,都有义务保护犯罪现场,并且立即通知公安机关派员勘验。
  第一百二十八条 侦查人员执行勘验、检查,必须持有人民检察院或者公安机关的证明文件。
  第一百二十九条 对于死因不明的尸体,公安机关有权决定解剖,并且通知死者家属到场。
  第一百三十条 为了确定被害人、犯罪嫌疑人的某些特征、伤害情况或者生理状态,可以对人身进行检查,可以提取指纹信息,采集血液、尿液等生物样本。
  犯罪嫌疑人如果拒绝检查,侦查人员认为必要的时候,可以强制检查。
  检查妇女的身体,应当由女工作人员或者医师进行。
  第一百三十一条 勘验、检查的情况应当写成笔录,由参加勘验、检查的人和见证人签名或者盖章。
  第一百三十二条 人民检察院审查案件的时候,对公安机关的勘验、检查,认为需要复验、复查时,可以要求公安机关复验、复查,并且可以派检察人员参加。
  第一百三十三条 为了查明案情,在必要的时候,经公安机关负责人批准,可以进行侦查实验。
  侦查实验的情况应当写成笔录,由参加实验的人签名或者盖章。
  侦查实验,禁止一切足以造成危险、侮辱人格或者有伤风化的行为。
第五节 搜 查
  第一百三十四条 为了收集犯罪证据、查获犯罪人,侦查人员可以对犯罪嫌疑人以及可能隐藏罪犯或者犯罪证据的人的身体、物品、住处和其他有关的地方进行搜查。
  第一百三十五条 任何单位和个人,有义务按照人民检察院和公安机关的要求,交出可以证明犯罪嫌疑人有罪或者无罪的物证、书证、视听资料等证据。
  第一百三十六条 进行搜查,必须向被搜查人出示搜查证。
  在执行逮捕、拘留的时候,遇有紧急情况,不另用搜查证也可以进行搜查。
  第一百三十七条 在搜查的时候,应当有被搜查人或者他的家属,邻居或者其他见证人在场。
  搜查妇女的身体,应当由女工作人员进行。
  第一百三十八条 搜查的情况应当写成笔录,由侦查人员和被搜查人或者他的家属,邻居或者其他见证人签名或者盖章。如果被搜查人或者他的家属在逃或者拒绝签名、盖章,应当在笔录上注明。
第六节 查封、扣押物证、书证
  第一百三十九条 在侦查活动中发现的可用以证明犯罪嫌疑人有罪或者无罪的各种财物、文件,应当查封、扣押;与案件无关的财物、文件,不得查封、扣押。
  对查封、扣押的财物、文件,要妥善保管或者封存,不得使用、调换或者损毁。
  第一百四十条 对查封、扣押的财物、文件,应当会同在场见证人和被查封、扣押财物、文件持有人查点清楚,当场开列清单一式二份,由侦查人员、见证人和持有人签名或者盖章,一份交给持有人,另一份附卷备查。
  第一百四十一条 侦查人员认为需要扣押犯罪嫌疑人的邮件、电报的时候,经公安机关或者人民检察院批准,即可通知邮电机关将有关的邮件、电报检交扣押。
  不需要继续扣押的时候,应即通知邮电机关。
  第一百四十二条 人民检察院、公安机关根据侦查犯罪的需要,可以依照规定查询、冻结犯罪嫌疑人的存款、汇款、债券、股票、基金份额等财产。有关单位和个人应当配合。
  犯罪嫌疑人的存款、汇款、债券、股票、基金份额等财产已被冻结的,不得重复冻结。
  第一百四十三条 对查封、扣押的财物、文件、邮件、电报或者冻结的存款、汇款、债券、股票、基金份额等财产,经查明确实与案件无关的,应当在三日以内解除查封、扣押、冻结,予以退还。
第七节 鉴 定
  第一百四十四条 为了查明案情,需要解决案件中某些专门性问题的时候,应当指派、聘请有专门知识的人进行鉴定。
  第一百四十五条 鉴定人进行鉴定后,应当写出鉴定意见,并且签名。
  鉴定人故意作虚假鉴定的,应当承担法律责任。
  第一百四十六条 侦查机关应当将用作证据的鉴定意见告知犯罪嫌疑人、被害人。如果犯罪嫌疑人、被害人提出申请,可以补充鉴定或者重新鉴定。
  第一百四十七条 对犯罪嫌疑人作精神病鉴定的期间不计入办案期限。
第八节 技术侦查措施
  第一百四十八条 公安机关在立案后,对于危害国家安全犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪、黑社会性质的组织犯罪、重大毒品犯罪或者其他严重危害社会的犯罪案件,根据侦查犯罪的需要,经过严格的批准手续,可以采取技术侦查措施。
  人民检察院在立案后,对于重大的贪污、贿赂犯罪案件以及利用职权实施的严重侵犯公民人身权利的重大犯罪案件,根据侦查犯罪的需要,经过严格的批准手续,可以采取技术侦查措施,按照规定交有关机关执行。
  追捕被通缉或者批准、决定逮捕的在逃的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,经过批准,可以采取追捕所必需的技术侦查措施。
  第一百四十九条 批准决定应当根据侦查犯罪的需要,确定采取技术侦查措施的种类和适用对象。批准决定自签发之日起三个月以内有效。对于不需要继续采取技术侦查措施的,应当及时解除;对于复杂、疑难案件,期限届满仍有必要继续采取技术侦查措施的,经过批准,有效期可以延长,每次不得超过三个月。
  第一百五十条 采取技术侦查措施,必须严格按照批准的措施种类、适用对象和期限执行。
  侦查人员对采取技术侦查措施过程中知悉的国家秘密、商业秘密和个人隐私,应当保密;对采取技术侦查措施获取的与案件无关的材料,必须及时销毁。
  采取技术侦查措施获取的材料,只能用于对犯罪的侦查、起诉和审判,不得用于其他用途。
  公安机关依法采取技术侦查措施,有关单位和个人应当配合,并对有关情况予以保密。
  第一百五十一条 为了查明案情,在必要的时候,经公安机关负责人决定,可以由有关人员隐匿其身份实施侦查。但是,不得诱使他人犯罪,不得采用可能危害公共安全或者发生重大人身危险的方法。
  对涉及给付毒品等违禁品或者财物的犯罪活动,公安机关根据侦查犯罪的需要,可以依照规定实施控制下交付。
  第一百五十二条 依照本节规定采取侦查措施收集的材料在刑事诉讼中可以作为证据使用。如果使用该证据可能危及有关人员的人身安全,或者可能产生其他严重后果的,应当采取不暴露有关人员身份、技术方法等保护措施,必要的时候,可以由审判人员在庭外对证据进行核实。
第九节 通 缉
  第一百五十三条 应当逮捕的犯罪嫌疑人如果在逃,公安机关可以发布通缉令,采取有效措施,追捕归案。
  各级公安机关在自己管辖的地区以内,可以直接发布通缉令;超出自己管辖的地区,应当报请有权决定的上级机关发布。
第十节 侦查终结
  第一百五十四条 对犯罪嫌疑人逮捕后的侦查羁押期限不得超过二个月。案情复杂、期限届满不能终结的案件,可以经上一级人民检察院批准延长一个月。
  第一百五十五条 因为特殊原因,在较长时间内不宜交付审判的特别重大复杂的案件,由最高人民检察院报请全国人民代表大会常务委员会批准延期审理。
  第一百五十六条 下列案件在本法第一百五十四条规定的期限届满不能侦查终结的,经省、自治区、直辖市人民检察院批准或者决定,可以延长二个月:
  (一)交通十分不便的边远地区的重大复杂案件;
  (二)重大的犯罪集团案件;
  (三)流窜作案的重大复杂案件;
  (四)犯罪涉及面广,取证困难的重大复杂案件。
  第一百五十七条 对犯罪嫌疑人可能判处十年有期徒刑以上刑罚,依照本法第一百五十六条规定延长期限届满,仍不能侦查终结的,经省、自治区、直辖市人民检察院批准或者决定,可以再延长二个月。
  第一百五十八条 在侦查期间,发现犯罪嫌疑人另有重要罪行的,自发现之日起依照本法第一百五十四条的规定重新计算侦查羁押期限。
  犯罪嫌疑人不讲真实姓名、住址,身份不明的,应当对其身份进行调查,侦查羁押期限自查清其身份之日起计算,但是不得停止对其犯罪行为的侦查取证。对于犯罪事实清楚,证据确实、充分,确实无法查明其身份的,也可以按其自报的姓名起诉、审判。
  第一百五十九条 在案件侦查终结前,辩护律师提出要求的,侦查机关应当听取辩护律师的意见,并记录在案。辩护律师提出书面意见的,应当附卷。
  第一百六十条 公安机关侦查终结的案件,应当做到犯罪事实清楚,证据确实、充分,并且写出起诉意见书,连同案卷材料、证据一并移送同级人民检察院审查决定;同时将案件移送情况告知犯罪嫌疑人及其辩护律师。
  第一百六十一条 在侦查过程中,发现不应对犯罪嫌疑人追究刑事责任的,应当撤销案件;犯罪嫌疑人已被逮捕的,应当立即释放,发给释放证明,并且通知原批准逮捕的人民检察院。
第十一节 人民检察院对直接受理的案件的侦查
  第一百六十二条 人民检察院对直接受理的案件的侦查适用本章规定。
  第一百六十三条 人民检察院直接受理的案件中符合本法第七十九条、第八十条第四项、第五项规定情形,需要逮捕、拘留犯罪嫌疑人的,由人民检察院作出决定,由公安机关执行。
  第一百六十四条 人民检察院对直接受理的案件中被拘留的人,应当在拘留后的二十四小时以内进行讯问。在发现不应当拘留的时候,必须立即释放,发给释放证明。
  第一百六十五条 人民检察院对直接受理的案件中被拘留的人,认为需要逮捕的,应当在十四日以内作出决定。在特殊情况下,决定逮捕的时间可以延长一日至三日。对不需要逮捕的,应当立即释放;对需要继续侦查,并且符合取保候审、监视居住条件的,依法取保候审或者监视居住。
  第一百六十六条 人民检察院侦查终结的案件,应当作出提起公诉、不起诉或者撤销案件的决定。
第三章 提起公诉
  第一百六十七条 凡需要提起公诉的案件,一律由人民检察院审查决定。
  第一百六十八条 人民检察院审查案件的时候,必须查明:
  (一)犯罪事实、情节是否清楚,证据是否确实、充分,犯罪性质和罪名的认定是否正确;
  (二)有无遗漏罪行和其他应当追究刑事责任的人;
  (三)是否属于不应追究刑事责任的;
  (四)有无附带民事诉讼;
  (五)侦查活动是否合法。
  第一百六十九条 人民检察院对于公安机关移送起诉的案件,应当在一个月以内作出决定,重大、复杂的案件,可以延长半个月。
  人民检察院审查起诉的案件,改变管辖的,从改变后的人民检察院收到案件之日起计算审查起诉期限。
  第一百七十条 人民检察院审查案件,应当讯问犯罪嫌疑人,听取辩护人、被害人及其诉讼代理人的意见,并记录在案。辩护人、被害人及其诉讼代理人提出书面意见的,应当附卷。
  第一百七十一条 人民检察院审查案件,可以要求公安机关提供法庭审判所必需的证据材料;认为可能存在本法第五十四条规定的以非法方法收集证据情形的,可以要求其对证据收集的合法性作出说明。
  人民检察院审查案件,对于需要补充侦查的,可以退回公安机关补充侦查,也可以自行侦查。
  对于补充侦查的案件,应当在一个月以内补充侦查完毕。补充侦查以二次为限。补充侦查完毕移送人民检察院后,人民检察院重新计算审查起诉期限。
  对于二次补充侦查的案件,人民检察院仍然认为证据不足,不符合起诉条件的,应当作出不起诉的决定。
  第一百七十二条 人民检察院认为犯罪嫌疑人的犯罪事实已经查清,证据确实、充分,依法应当追究刑事责任的,应当作出起诉决定,按照审判管辖的规定,向人民法院提起公诉,并将案卷材料、证据移送人民法院。
  第一百七十三条 犯罪嫌疑人没有犯罪事实,或者有本法第十五条规定的情形之一的,人民检察院应当作出不起诉决定。
  对于犯罪情节轻微,依照刑法规定不需要判处刑罚或者免除刑罚的,人民检察院可以作出不起诉决定。
  人民检察院决定不起诉的案件,应当同时对侦查中查封、扣押、冻结的财物解除查封、扣押、冻结。对被不起诉人需要给予行政处罚、行政处分或者需要没收其违法所得的,人民检察院应当提出检察意见,移送有关主管机关处理。有关主管机关应当将处理结果及时通知人民检察院。
  第一百七十四条 不起诉的决定,应当公开宣布,并且将不起诉决定书送达被不起诉人和他的所在单位。如果被不起诉人在押,应当立即释放。
  第一百七十五条 对于公安机关移送起诉的案件,人民检察院决定不起诉的,应当将不起诉决定书送达公安机关。公安机关认为不起诉的决定有错误的时候,可以要求复议,如果意见不被接受,可以向上一级人民检察院提请复核。
  第一百七十六条 对于有被害人的案件,决定不起诉的,人民检察院应当将不起诉决定书送达被害人。被害人如果不服,可以自收到决定书后七日以内向上一级人民检察院申诉,请求提起公诉。人民检察院应当将复查决定告知被害人。对人民检察院维持不起诉决定的,被害人可以向人民法院起诉。被害人也可以不经申诉,直接向人民法院起诉。人民法院受理案件后,人民检察院应当将有关案件材料移送人民法院。
  第一百七十七条 对于人民检察院依照本法第一百七十三条第二款规定作出的不起诉决定,被不起诉人如果不服,可以自收到决定书后七日以内向人民检察院申诉。人民检察院应当作出复查决定,通知被不起诉的人,同时抄送公安机关。
第三编 审 判
第一章 审判组织
  第一百七十八条 基层人民法院、中级人民法院审判第一审案件,应当由审判员三人或者由审判员和人民陪审员共三人组成合议庭进行,但是基层人民法院适用简易程序的案件可以由审判员一人独任审判。
  高级人民法院、最高人民法院审判第一审案件,应当由审判员三人至七人或者由审判员和人民陪审员共三人至七人组成合议庭进行。
  人民陪审员在人民法院执行职务,同审判员有同等的权利。
  人民法院审判上诉和抗诉案件,由审判员三人至五人组成合议庭进行。
  合议庭的成员人数应当是单数。
  合议庭由院长或者庭长指定审判员一人担任审判长。院长或者庭长参加审判案件的时候,自己担任审判长。
  第一百七十九条 合议庭进行评议的时候,如果意见分歧,应当按多数人的意见作出决定,但是少数人的意见应当写入笔录。评议笔录由合议庭的组成人员签名。
  第一百八十条 合议庭开庭审理并且评议后,应当作出判决。对于疑难、复杂、重大的案件,合议庭认为难以作出决定的,由合议庭提请院长决定提交审判委员会讨论决定。审判委员会的决定,合议庭应当执行。
第二章 第一审程序
第一节 公诉案件
  第一百八十一条 人民法院对提起公诉的案件进行审查后,对于起诉书中有明确的指控犯罪事实的,应当决定开庭审判。
  第一百八十二条 人民法院决定开庭审判后,应当确定合议庭的组成人员,将人民检察院的起诉书副本至迟在开庭十日以前送达被告人及其辩护人。
  在开庭以前,审判人员可以召集公诉人、当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人,对回避、出庭证人名单、非法证据排除等与审判相关的问题,了解情况,听取意见。
  人民法院确定开庭日期后,应当将开庭的时间、地点通知人民检察院,传唤当事人,通知辩护人、诉讼代理人、证人、鉴定人和翻译人员,传票和通知书至迟在开庭三日以前送达。公开审判的案件,应当在开庭三日以前先期公布案由、被告人姓名、开庭时间和地点。
  上述活动情形应当写入笔录,由审判人员和书记员签名。
  第一百八十三条 人民法院审判第一审案件应当公开进行。但是有关国家秘密或者个人隐私的案件,不公开审理;涉及商业秘密的案件,当事人申请不公开审理的,可以不公开审理。
  不公开审理的案件,应当当庭宣布不公开审理的理由。
  第一百八十四条 人民法院审判公诉案件,人民检察院应当派员出席法庭支持公诉。
  第一百八十五条 开庭的时候,审判长查明当事人是否到庭,宣布案由;宣布合议庭的组成人员、书记员、公诉人、辩护人、诉讼代理人、鉴定人和翻译人员的名单;告知当事人有权对合议庭组成人员、书记员、公诉人、鉴定人和翻译人员申请回避;告知被告人享有辩护权利。
  第一百八十六条 公诉人在法庭上宣读起诉书后,被告人、被害人可以就起诉书指控的犯罪进行陈述,公诉人可以讯问被告人。
  被害人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和辩护人、诉讼代理人,经审判长许可,可以向被告人发问。
  审判人员可以讯问被告人。
  第一百八十七条 公诉人、当事人或者辩护人、诉讼代理人对证人证言有异议,且该证人证言对案件定罪量刑有重大影响,人民法院认为证人有必要出庭作证的,证人应当出庭作证。
  人民警察就其执行职务时目击的犯罪情况作为证人出庭作证,适用前款规定。
  公诉人、当事人或者辩护人、诉讼代理人对鉴定意见有异议,人民法院认为鉴定人有必要出庭的,鉴定人应当出庭作证。经人民法院通知,鉴定人拒不出庭作证的,鉴定意见不得作为定案的根据。
  第一百八十八条 经人民法院通知,证人没有正当理由不出庭作证的,人民法院可以强制其到庭,但是被告人的配偶、父母、子女除外。
  证人没有正当理由拒绝出庭或者出庭后拒绝作证的,予以训诫,情节严重的,经院长批准,处以十日以下的拘留。被处罚人对拘留决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议。复议期间不停止执行。
  第一百八十九条 证人作证,审判人员应当告知他要如实地提供证言和有意作伪证或者隐匿罪证要负的法律责任。公诉人、当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人经审判长许可,可以对证人、鉴定人发问。审判长认为发问的内容与案件无关的时候,应当制止。
  审判人员可以询问证人、鉴定人。
  第一百九十条 公诉人、辩护人应当向法庭出示物证,让当事人辨认,对未到庭的证人的证言笔录、鉴定人的鉴定意见、勘验笔录和其他作为证据的文书,应当当庭宣读。审判人员应当听取公诉人、当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人的意见。
  第一百九十一条 法庭审理过程中,合议庭对证据有疑问的,可以宣布休庭,对证据进行调查核实。
  人民法院调查核实证据,可以进行勘验、检查、查封、扣押、鉴定和查询、冻结。
  第一百九十二条 法庭审理过程中,当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人有权申请通知新的证人到庭,调取新的物证,申请重新鉴定或者勘验。
  公诉人、当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人可以申请法庭通知有专门知识的人出庭,就鉴定人作出的鉴定意见提出意见。
  法庭对于上述申请,应当作出是否同意的决定。
  第二款规定的有专门知识的人出庭,适用鉴定人的有关规定。
  第一百九十三条 法庭审理过程中,对与定罪、量刑有关的事实、证据都应当进行调查、辩论。
  经审判长许可,公诉人、当事人和辩护人、诉讼代理人可以对证据和案件情况发表意见并且可以互相辩论。
  审判长在宣布辩论终结后,被告人有最后陈述的权利。
  第一百九十四条 在法庭审判过程中,如果诉讼参与人或者旁听人员违反法庭秩序,审判长应当警告制止。对不听制止的,可以强行带出法庭;情节严重的,处以一千元以下的罚款或者十五日以下的拘留。罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。被处罚人对罚款、拘留的决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议。复议期间不停止执行。
  对聚众哄闹、冲击法庭或者侮辱、诽谤、威胁、殴打司法工作人员或者诉讼参与人,严重扰乱法庭秩序,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
  第一百九十五条 在被告人最后陈述后,审判长宣布休庭,合议庭进行评议,根据已经查明的事实、证据和有关的法律规定,分别作出以下判决:
  (一)案件事实清楚,证据确实、充分,依据法律认定被告人有罪的,应当作出有罪判决;
  (二)依据法律认定被告人无罪的,应当作出无罪判决;
  (三)证据不足,不能认定被告人有罪的,应当作出证据不足、指控的犯罪不能成立的无罪判决。
  第一百九十六条 宣告判决,一律公开进行。
  当庭宣告判决的,应当在五日以内将判决书送达当事人和提起公诉的人民检察院;定期宣告判决的,应当在宣告后立即将判决书送达当事人和提起公诉的人民检察院。判决书应当同时送达辩护人、诉讼代理人。
  第一百九十七条 判决书应当由审判人员和书记员署名,并且写明上诉的期限和上诉的法院。
  第一百九十八条 在法庭审判过程中,遇有下列情形之一,影响审判进行的,可以延期审理:
  (一)需要通知新的证人到庭,调取新的物证,重新鉴定或者勘验的;
  (二)检察人员发现提起公诉的案件需要补充侦查,提出建议的;
  (三)由于申请回避而不能进行审判的。
  第一百九十九条 依照本法第一百九十八条第二项的规定延期审理的案件,人民检察院应当在一个月以内补充侦查完毕。
  第二百条 在审判过程中,有下列情形之一,致使案件在较长时间内无法继续审理的,可以中止审理:
  (一)被告人患有严重疾病,无法出庭的;
  (二)被告人脱逃的;
  (三)自诉人患有严重疾病,无法出庭,未委托诉讼代理人出庭的;
  (四)由于不能抗拒的原因。
  中止审理的原因消失后,应当恢复审理。中止审理的期间不计入审理期限。
  第二百零一条 法庭审判的全部活动,应当由书记员写成笔录,经审判长审阅后,由审判长和书记员签名。
  法庭笔录中的证人证言部分,应当当庭宣读或者交给证人阅读。证人在承认没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。
  法庭笔录应当交给当事人阅读或者向他宣读。当事人认为记载有遗漏或者差错的,可以请求补充或者改正。当事人承认没有错误后,应当签名或者盖章。
  第二百零二条 人民法院审理公诉案件,应当在受理后二个月以内宣判,至迟不得超过三个月。对于可能判处死刑的案件或者附带民事诉讼的案件,以及有本法第一百五十六条规定情形之一的,经上一级人民法院批准,可以延长三个月;因特殊情况还需要延长的,报请最高人民法院批准。
  人民法院改变管辖的案件,从改变后的人民法院收到案件之日起计算审理期限。
  人民检察院补充侦查的案件,补充侦查完毕移送人民法院后,人民法院重新计算审理期限。
  第二百零三条 人民检察院发现人民法院审理案件违反法律规定的诉讼程序,有权向人民法院提出纠正意见。
第二节 自诉案件
  第二百零四条 自诉案件包括下列案件:
  (一)告诉才处理的案件;
  (二)被害人有证据证明的轻微刑事案件;
  (三)被害人有证据证明对被告人侵犯自己人身、财产权利的行为应当依法追究刑事责任,而公安机关或者人民检察院不予追究被告人刑事责任的案件。
  第二百零五条 人民法院对于自诉案件进行审查后,按照下列情形分别处理:
  (一)犯罪事实清楚,有足够证据的案件,应当开庭审判;
  (二)缺乏罪证的自诉案件,如果自诉人提不出补充证据,应当说服自诉人撤回自诉,或者裁定驳回。
  自诉人经两次依法传唤,无正当理由拒不到庭的,或者未经法庭许可中途退庭的,按撤诉处理。
  法庭审理过程中,审判人员对证据有疑问,需要调查核实的,适用本法第一百九十一条的规定。
  第二百零六条 人民法院对自诉案件,可以进行调解;自诉人在宣告判决前,可以同被告人自行和解或者撤回自诉。本法第二百零四条第三项规定的案件不适用调解。
  人民法院审理自诉案件的期限,被告人被羁押的,适用本法第二百零二条第一款、第二款的规定;未被羁押的,应当在受理后六个月以内宣判。
  第二百零七条 自诉案件的被告人在诉讼过程中,可以对自诉人提起反诉。反诉适用自诉的规定。
第三节 简易程序
  第二百零八条 基层人民法院管辖的案件,符合下列条件的,可以适用简易程序审判:
  (一)案件事实清楚、证据充分的;
  (二)被告人承认自己所犯罪行,对指控的犯罪事实没有异议的;
  (三)被告人对适用简易程序没有异议的。
  人民检察院在提起公诉的时候,可以建议人民法院适用简易程序。
  第二百零九条 有下列情形之一的,不适用简易程序:
  (一)被告人是盲、聋、哑人,或者是尚未完全丧失辨认或者控制自己行为能力的精神病人的;
  (二)有重大社会影响的;
  (三)共同犯罪案件中部分被告人不认罪或者对适用简易程序有异议的;
  (四)其他不宜适用简易程序审理的。
  第二百一十条 适用简易程序审理案件,对可能判处三年有期徒刑以下刑罚的,可以组成合议庭进行审判,也可以由审判员一人独任审判;对可能判处的有期徒刑超过三年的,应当组成合议庭进行审判。
  适用简易程序审理公诉案件,人民检察院应当派员出席法庭。
  第二百一十一条 适用简易程序审理案件,审判人员应当询问被告人对指控的犯罪事实的意见,告知被告人适用简易程序审理的法律规定,确认被告人是否同意适用简易程序审理。
  第二百一十二条 适用简易程序审理案件,经审判人员许可,被告人及其辩护人可以同公诉人、自诉人及其诉讼代理人互相辩论。
  第二百一十三条 适用简易程序审理案件,不受本章第一节关于送达期限、讯问被告人、询问证人、鉴定人、出示证据、法庭辩论程序规定的限制。但在判决宣告前应当听取被告人的最后陈述意见。
  第二百一十四条 适用简易程序审理案件,人民法院应当在受理后二十日以内审结;对可能判处的有期徒刑超过三年的,可以延长至一个半月。
  第二百一十五条 人民法院在审理过程中,发现不宜适用简易程序的,应当按照本章第一节或者第二节的规定重新审理。
第三章 第二审程序
  第二百一十六条 被告人、自诉人和他们的法定代理人,不服地方各级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定,有权用书状或者口头向上一级人民法院上诉。被告人的辩护人和近亲属,经被告人同意,可以提出上诉。
  附带民事诉讼的当事人和他们的法定代理人,可以对地方各级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定中的附带民事诉讼部分,提出上诉。
  对被告人的上诉权,不得以任何借口加以剥夺。
  第二百一十七条 地方各级人民检察院认为本级人民法院第一审的判决、裁定确有错误的时候,应当向上一级人民法院提出抗诉。
  第二百一十八条 被害人及其法定代理人不服地方各级人民法院第一审的判决的,自收到判决书后五日以内,有权请求人民检察院提出抗诉。人民检察院自收到被害人及其法定代理人的请求后五日以内,应当作出是否抗诉的决定并且答复请求人。
  第二百一十九条 不服判决的上诉和抗诉的期限为十日,不服裁定的上诉和抗诉的期限为五日,从接到判决书、裁定书的第二日起算。
  第二百二十条 被告人、自诉人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和被告人通过原审人民法院提出上诉的,原审人民法院应当在三日以内将上诉状连同案卷、证据移送上一级人民法院,同时将上诉状副本送交同级人民检察院和对方当事人。
  被告人、自诉人、附带民事诉讼的原告人和被告人直接向第二审人民法院提出上诉的,第二审人民法院应当在三日以内将上诉状交原审人民法院送交同级人民检察院和对方当事人。
  第二百二十一条 地方各级人民检察院对同级人民法院第一审判决、裁定的抗诉,应当通过原审人民法院提出抗诉书,并且将抗诉书抄送上一级人民检察院。原审人民法院应当将抗诉书连同案卷、证据移送上一级人民法院,并且将抗诉书副本送交当事人。
  上级人民检察院如果认为抗诉不当,可以向同级人民法院撤回抗诉,并且通知下级人民检察院。
  第二百二十二条 第二审人民法院应当就第一审判决认定的事实和适用法律进行全面审查,不受上诉或者抗诉范围的限制。
  共同犯罪的案件只有部分被告人上诉的,应当对全案进行审查,一并处理。
  第二百二十三条 第二审人民法院对于下列案件,应当组成合议庭,开庭审理:
  (一)被告人、自诉人及其法定代理人对第一审认定的事实、证据提出异议,可能影响定罪量刑的上诉案件;
  (二)被告人被判处死刑的上诉案件;
  (三)人民检察院抗诉的案件;
  (四)其他应当开庭审理的案件。
  第二审人民法院决定不开庭审理的,应当讯问被告人,听取其他当事人、辩护人、诉讼代理人的意见。
  第二审人民法院开庭审理上诉、抗诉案件,可以到案件发生地或者原审人民法院所在地进行。
  第二百二十四条 人民检察院提出抗诉的案件或者第二审人民法院开庭审理的公诉案件,同级人民检察院都应当派员出席法庭。第二审人民法院应当在决定开庭审理后及时通知人民检察院查阅案卷。人民检察院应当在一个月以内查阅完毕。人民检察院查阅案卷的时间不计入审理期限。
  第二百二十五条 第二审人民法院对不服第一审判决的上诉、抗诉案件,经过审理后,应当按照下列情形分别处理:
  (一)原判决认定事实和适用法律正确、量刑适当的,应当裁定驳回上诉或者抗诉,维持原判;
  (二)原判决认定事实没有错误,但适用法律有错误,或者量刑不当的,应当改判;
  (三)原判决事实不清楚或者证据不足的,可以在查清事实后改判;也可以裁定撤销原判,发回原审人民法院重新审判。
  原审人民法院对于依照前款第三项规定发回重新审判的案件作出判决后,被告人提出上诉或者人民检察院提出抗诉的,第二审人民法院应当依法作出判决或者裁定,不得再发回原审人民法院重新审判。
  第二百二十六条 第二审人民法院审理被告人或者他的法定代理人、辩护人、近亲属上诉的案件,不得加重被告人的刑罚。第二审人民法院发回原审人民法院重新审判的案件,除有新的犯罪事实,人民检察院补充起诉的以外,原审人民法院也不得加重被告人的刑罚。
  人民检察院提出抗诉或者自诉人提出上诉的,不受前款规定的限制。
  第二百二十七条 第二审人民法院发现第一审人民法院的审理有下列违反法律规定的诉讼程序的情形之一的,应当裁定撤销原判,发回原审人民法院重新审判:
  (一)违反本法有关公开审判的规定的;
  (二)违反回避制度的;
  (三)剥夺或者限制了当事人的法定诉讼权利,可能影响公正审判的;
  (四)审判组织的组成不合法的;
  (五)其他违反法律规定的诉讼程序,可能影响公正审判的。
  第二百二十八条 原审人民法院对于发回重新审判的案件,应当另行组成合议庭,依照第一审程序进行审判。对于重新审判后的判决,依照本法第二百一十六条、第二百一十七条、第二百一十八条的规定可以上诉、抗诉。
  第二百二十九条 第二审人民法院对不服第一审裁定的上诉或者抗诉,经过审查后,应当参照本法第二百二十五条、第二百二十七条和第二百二十八条的规定,分别情形用裁定驳回上诉、抗诉,或者撤销、变更原裁定。
  第二百三十条 第二审人民法院发回原审人民法院重新审判的案件,原审人民法院从收到发回的案件之日起,重新计算审理期限。
  第二百三十一条 第二审人民法院审判上诉或者抗诉案件的程序,除本章已有规定的以外,参照第一审程序的规定进行。
  第二百三十二条 第二审人民法院受理上诉、抗诉案件,应当在二个月以内审结。对于可能判处死刑的案件或者附带民事诉讼的案件,以及有本法第一百五十六条规定情形之一的,经省、自治区、直辖市高级人民法院批准或者决定,可以延长二个月;因特殊情况还需要延长的,报请最高人民法院批准。
  最高人民法院受理上诉、抗诉案件的审理期限,由最高人民法院决定。
  第二百三十三条 第二审的判决、裁定和最高人民法院的判决、裁定,都是终审的判决、裁定。
  第二百三十四条 公安机关、人民检察院和人民法院对查封、扣押、冻结的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的财物及其孳息,应当妥善保管,以供核查,并制作清单,随案移送。任何单位和个人不得挪用或者自行处理。对被害人的合法财产,应当及时返还。对违禁品或者不宜长期保存的物品,应当依照国家有关规定处理。
  对作为证据使用的实物应当随案移送,对不宜移送的,应当将其清单、照片或者其他证明文件随案移送。
  人民法院作出的判决,应当对查封、扣押、冻结的财物及其孳息作出处理。
  人民法院作出的判决生效以后,有关机关应当根据判决对查封、扣押、冻结的财物及其孳息进行处理。对查封、扣押、冻结的赃款赃物及其孳息,除依法返还被害人的以外,一律上缴国库。
  司法工作人员贪污、挪用或者私自处理查封、扣押、冻结的财物及其孳息的,依法追究刑事责任;不构成犯罪的,给予处分。
第四章 死刑复核程序
  第二百三十五条 死刑由最高人民法院核准。
  第二百三十六条 中级人民法院判处死刑的第一审案件,被告人不上诉的,应当由高级人民法院复核后,报请最高人民法院核准。高级人民法院不同意判处死刑的,可以提审或者发回重新审判。
  高级人民法院判处死刑的第一审案件被告人不上诉的,和判处死刑的第二审案件,都应当报请最高人民法院核准。
  第二百三十七条 中级人民法院判处死刑缓期二年执行的案件,由高级人民法院核准。
  第二百三十八条 最高人民法院复核死刑案件,高级人民法院复核死刑缓期执行的案件,应当由审判员三人组成合议庭进行。
  第二百三十九条 最高人民法院复核死刑案件,应当作出核准或者不核准死刑的裁定。对于不核准死刑的,最高人民法院可以发回重新审判或者予以改判。
  第二百四十条 最高人民法院复核死刑案件,应当讯问被告人,辩护律师提出要求的,应当听取辩护律师的意见。
  在复核死刑案件过程中,最高人民检察院可以向最高人民法院提出意见。最高人民法院应当将死刑复核结果通报最高人民检察院。
第五章 审判监督程序
  第二百四十一条 当事人及其法定代理人、近亲属,对已经发生法律效力的判决、裁定,可以向人民法院或者人民检察院提出申诉,但是不能停止判决、裁定的执行。
  第二百四十二条 当事人及其法定代理人、近亲属的申诉符合下列情形之一的,人民法院应当重新审判:
  (一)有新的证据证明原判决、裁定认定的事实确有错误,可能影响定罪量刑的;
  (二)据以定罪量刑的证据不确实、不充分、依法应当予以排除,或者证明案件事实的主要证据之间存在矛盾的;
  (三)原判决、裁定适用法律确有错误的;
  (四)违反法律规定的诉讼程序,可能影响公正审判的;
  (五)审判人员在审理该案件的时候,有贪污受贿,徇私舞弊,枉法裁判行为的。
  第二百四十三条 各级人民法院院长对本院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,如果发现在认定事实上或者在适用法律上确有错误,必须提交审判委员会处理。
  最高人民法院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,上级人民法院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,如果发现确有错误,有权提审或者指令下级人民法院再审。
  最高人民检察院对各级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,上级人民检察院对下级人民法院已经发生法律效力的判决和裁定,如果发现确有错误,有权按照审判监督程序向同级人民法院提出抗诉。
  人民检察院抗诉的案件,接受抗诉的人民法院应当组成合议庭重新审理,对于原判决事实不清楚或者证据不足的,可以指令下级人民法院再审。
  第二百四十四条 上级人民法院指令下级人民法院再审的,应当指令原审人民法院以外的下级人民法院审理;由原审人民法院审理更为适宜的,也可以指令原审人民法院审理。
  第二百四十五条 人民法院按照审判监督程序重新审判的案件,由原审人民法院审理的,应当另行组成合议庭进行。如果原来是第一审案件,应当依照第一审程序进行审判,所作的判决、裁定,可以上诉、抗诉;如果原来是第二审案件,或者是上级人民法院提审的案件,应当依照第二审程序进行审判,所作的判决、裁定,是终审的判决、裁定。
  人民法院开庭审理的再审案件,同级人民检察院应当派员出席法庭。
  第二百四十六条 人民法院决定再审的案件,需要对被告人采取强制措施的,由人民法院依法决定;人民检察院提出抗诉的再审案件,需要对被告人采取强制措施的,由人民检察院依法决定。
  人民法院按照审判监督程序审判的案件,可以决定中止原判决、裁定的执行。
  第二百四十七条 人民法院按照审判监督程序重新审判的案件,应当在作出提审、再审决定之日起三个月以内审结,需要延长期限的,不得超过六个月。
  接受抗诉的人民法院按照审判监督程序审判抗诉的案件,审理期限适用前款规定;对需要指令下级人民法院再审的,应当自接受抗诉之日起一个月以内作出决定,下级人民法院审理案件的期限适用前款规定。
第四编 执 行
  第二百四十八条 判决和裁定在发生法律效力后执行。
  下列判决和裁定是发生法律效力的判决和裁定:
  (一)已过法定期限没有上诉、抗诉的判决和裁定;
  (二)终审的判决和裁定;
  (三)最高人民法院核准的死刑的判决和高级人民法院核准的死刑缓期二年执行的判决。
  第二百四十九条 第一审人民法院判决被告人无罪、免除刑事处罚的,如果被告人在押,在宣判后应当立即释放。
  第二百五十条 最高人民法院判处和核准的死刑立即执行的判决,应当由最高人民法院院长签发执行死刑的命令。
  被判处死刑缓期二年执行的罪犯,在死刑缓期执行期间,如果没有故意犯罪,死刑缓期执行期满,应当予以减刑,由执行机关提出书面意见,报请高级人民法院裁定;如果故意犯罪,查证属实,应当执行死刑,由高级人民法院报请最高人民法院核准。
  第二百五十一条 下级人民法院接到最高人民法院执行死刑的命令后,应当在七日以内交付执行。但是发现有下列情形之一的,应当停止执行,并且立即报告最高人民法院,由最高人民法院作出裁定:
  (一)在执行前发现判决可能有错误的;
  (二)在执行前罪犯揭发重大犯罪事实或者有其他重大立功表现,可能需要改判的;
  (三)罪犯正在怀孕。
  前款第一项、第二项停止执行的原因消失后,必须报请最高人民法院院长再签发执行死刑的命令才能执行;由于前款第三项原因停止执行的,应当报请最高人民法院依法改判。
  第二百五十二条 人民法院在交付执行死刑前,应当通知同级人民检察院派员临场监督。
  死刑采用枪决或者注射等方法执行。
  死刑可以在刑场或者指定的羁押场所内执行。
  指挥执行的审判人员,对罪犯应当验明正身,讯问有无遗言、信札,然后交付执行人员执行死刑。在执行前,如果发现可能有错误,应当暂停执行,报请最高人民法院裁定。
  执行死刑应当公布,不应示众。
  执行死刑后,在场书记员应当写成笔录。交付执行的人民法院应当将执行死刑情况报告最高人民法院。
  执行死刑后,交付执行的人民法院应当通知罪犯家属。
  第二百五十三条 罪犯被交付执行刑罚的时候,应当由交付执行的人民法院在判决生效后十日以内将有关的法律文书送达公安机关、监狱或者其他执行机关。
  对被判处死刑缓期二年执行、无期徒刑、有期徒刑的罪犯,由公安机关依法将该罪犯送交监狱执行刑罚。对被判处有期徒刑的罪犯,在被交付执行刑罚前,剩余刑期在三个月以下的,由看守所代为执行。对被判处拘役的罪犯,由公安机关执行。
  对未成年犯应当在未成年犯管教所执行刑罚。
  执行机关应当将罪犯及时收押,并且通知罪犯家属。
  判处有期徒刑、拘役的罪犯,执行期满,应当由执行机关发给释放证明书。
  第二百五十四条 对被判处有期徒刑或者拘役的罪犯,有下列情形之一的,可以暂予监外执行:
  (一)有严重疾病需要保外就医的;
  (二)怀孕或者正在哺乳自己婴儿的妇女;
  (三)生活不能自理,适用暂予监外执行不致危害社会的。
  对被判处无期徒刑的罪犯,有前款第二项规定情形的,可以暂予监外执行。
  对适用保外就医可能有社会危险性的罪犯,或者自伤自残的罪犯,不得保外就医。
  对罪犯确有严重疾病,必须保外就医的,由省级人民政府指定的医院诊断并开具证明文件。
  在交付执行前,暂予监外执行由交付执行的人民法院决定;在交付执行后,暂予监外执行由监狱或者看守所提出书面意见,报省级以上监狱管理机关或者设区的市一级以上公安机关批准。
  第二百五十五条 监狱、看, 守所提出暂予监外执行的书面意见的,应当将书面意见的副本抄送人民检察院。人民检察院可以向决定或者批准机关提出书面意见。
  第二百五十六条 决定或者批准暂予监外执行的机关应当将暂予监外执行决, 定抄送人民检察院。人民检察院认为暂予监外执行不当的,应当自接到通知之日起一个月以内将书面意见送交决定或者批准暂予监外执行的机关,决定或者批准暂予监外执行的机关接到人民检察院的书面意见后,应当立即对该决定进行重新核查。
  第二百五十七条 对暂予监外执行的罪犯,有下列情形之一的,应当及时收监:
  (一)发现不符合暂予监外执行条件的;
  (二)严重违反有关暂予监外执行监督管理规定的;
  (三)暂予监外执行的情形消失后,罪犯刑期未, 满的。
  对于人民法院决定暂予监外执行的罪犯应当予以收监的,由人民法院作出决定,将有关的法律文书送达公安机关、监狱或者其他执行机关。
  不符合暂予监外执行条件的罪犯通过贿赂等非法手段被暂予监外执行的,在监外执行的期间不计入执行刑期。罪犯在暂予监外执行期间脱, 逃的,脱逃的期间不计入执行刑期。
  罪犯在暂予监外执行期间死亡的,执行机关应当及时通知监狱或者看守所。
  第二百五十八条 对被判处管制、宣告缓刑、假释或者暂予监外执行的罪, 犯,依法实行社区矫正,由社区矫正机构负责执行。
  第二百五十九条 对被判处剥夺政治权利的罪犯,由公安机关执行。执行期满,应当由执行机关书面通知本人及其所在单位、居住地基层组织。
  第二百六十条 被判处罚金的罪犯,期满不缴纳的,人民法院应当强制缴纳;如果由于遭遇不能抗拒的灾祸缴纳确实有困难的,可以裁定减少或者免除。
  第二百六十一条 没收财产的判决,无论附加适用或者独立适用,都由人民法院执行;在必要的时候,可以会同公安机关执行。
  第二百六十二条 罪犯在服刑期间又犯罪的,或者发现了判决的时候所没有发现的罪行,由执行机关移送人民检察院处理。
  被判处管制、拘役、有期徒刑或者无期徒刑的罪犯,在执行期间确有悔改或者立功表现,应当依法予以减刑、假释的时候,由执行机关提出建议书,报请人民法院审核裁定,并将建议书副本抄送人民检察院。人民检察院可以向人民法院提出书面意见。
  第二百六十三条 人民检察院认为人民法院减刑、假释的裁定不当,应当在收到裁定书副本后二十日以内,向人民法院提出书面纠正意见。人民法院应当在收到纠正意见后一个月以内重新组成合议庭进行审理,作出最终裁定。
  第二百六十四条 监狱和其他执行机关在刑罚执行中,如果认为判决有错误或者罪犯提出申诉,应当转请人民检察院或者原判人民法院处理。
  第二百六十五条 人民检察院对执行机关执行刑罚的活动是否合法实行监督。如果发现有违法的情况,应当通知执行机关纠正。
第五编 特别程序
第一章 未成年人刑事案件诉讼程序
  第二百六十六条 对犯罪的未成年人实行教育、感化、挽救的方针,坚持教育为主、惩罚为辅的原则。
  人民法院、人民检察院和公安机关办理未成年人刑事案件,应当保障未成年人行使其诉讼权利,保障未成年人得到法律帮助,并由熟悉未成年人身心特点的审判人员、检察人员、侦查人员承办。
  第二百六十七条 未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人没有委托辩护人的,人民法院、人民检察院、公安机关应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供辩护。
  第二百六十八条 公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院办理未成年人刑事案件,根据情况可以对未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的成长经历、犯罪原因、监护教育等情况进行调查。
  第二百六十九条 对未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人应当严格限制适用逮捕措施。人民检察院审查批准逮捕和人民法院决定逮捕,应当讯问未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人,听取辩护律师的意见。
  对被拘留、逮捕和执行刑罚的未成年人与成年人应当分别关押、分别管理、分别教育。
  第二百七十条 对于未成年人刑事案件,在讯问和审判的时候,应当通知未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的法定代理人到场。无法通知、法定代理人不能到场或者法定代理人是共犯的,也可以通知未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的其他成年亲属,所在学校、单位、居住地基层组织或者未成年人保护组织的代表到场,并将有关情况记录在案。到场的法定代理人可以代为行使未成年犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼权利。
  到场的法定代理人或者其他人员认为办案人员在讯问、审判中侵犯未成年人合法权益的,可以提出意见。讯问笔录、法庭笔录应当交给到场的法定代理人或者其他人员阅读或者向他宣读。
  讯问女性未成年犯罪嫌疑人,应当有女工作人员在场。
  审判未成年人刑事案件,未成年被告人最后陈述后,其法定代理人可以进行补充陈述。
  询问未成年被害人、证人,适用第一款、第二款、第三款的规定。
  第二百七十一条 对于未成年人涉嫌刑法分则第四章、第五章、第六章规定的犯罪,可能判处一年有期徒刑以下刑罚,符合起诉条件,但有悔罪表现的,人民检察院可以作出附条件不起诉的决定。人民检察院在作出附条件不起诉的决定以前,应当听取公安机关、被害人的意见。
  对附条件不起诉的决定,公安机关要求复议、提请复核或者被害人申诉的,适用本法第一百七十五条、第一百七十六条的规定。
  未成年犯罪嫌疑人及其法定代理人对人民检察院决定附条件不起诉有异议的,人民检察院应当作出起诉的决定。
  第二百七十二条 在附条件不起诉的考验期内,由人民检察院对被附条件不起诉的未成年犯罪嫌疑人进行监督考察。未成年犯罪嫌疑人的监护人,应当对未成年犯罪嫌疑人加强管教,配合人民检察院做好监督考察工作。
  附条件不起诉的考验期为六个月以上一年以下,从人民检察院作出附条件不起诉的决定之日起计算。
  被附条件不起诉的未成年犯罪嫌疑人,应当遵守下列规定:
  (一)遵守法律法规,服从监督;
  (二)按照考察机关的规定报告自己的活动情况;
  (三)离开所居住的市、县或者迁居,应当报经考察机关批准;
  (四)按照考察机关的要求接受矫治和教育。
  第二百七十三条 被附条件不起诉的未成年犯罪嫌疑人,在考验期内有下列情形之一的,人民检察院应当撤销附条件不起诉的决定,提起公诉:
  (一)实施新的犯罪或者发现决定附条件不起诉以前还有其他犯罪需要追诉的;
  (二)违反治安管理规定或者考察机关有关附条件不起诉的监督管理规定,情节严重的。
  被附条件不起诉的未成年犯罪嫌疑人,在考验期内没有上述情形,考验期满的,人民检察院应当作出不起诉的决定。
  第二百七十四条 审判的时候被告人不满十八周岁的案件,不公开审理。但是,经未成年被告人及其法定代理人同意,未成年被告人所在学校和未成年人保护组织可以派代表到场。
  第二百七十五条 犯罪的时候不满十八周岁,被判处五年有期徒刑以下刑罚的,应当对相关犯罪记录予以封存。
  犯罪记录被封存的,不得向任何单位和个人提供,但司法机关为办案需要或者有关单位根据国家规定进行查询的除外。依法进行查询的单位,应当对被封存的犯罪记录的情况予以保密。
  第二百七十六条 办理未成年人刑事案件,除本章已有规定的以外,按照本法的其他规定进行。
第二章 当事人和解的公诉案件诉讼程序
  第二百七十七条 下列公诉案件,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人真诚悔罪,通过向被害人赔偿损失、赔礼道歉等方式获得被害人谅解,被害人自愿和解的,双方当事人可以和解:
  (一)因民间纠纷引起,涉嫌刑法分则第四章、第五章规定的犯罪案件,可能判处三年有期徒刑以下刑罚的;
  (二)除渎职犯罪以外的可能判处七年有期徒刑以下刑罚的过失犯罪案件。
  犯罪嫌疑人、被告人在五年以内曾经故意犯罪的,不适用本章规定的程序。
  第二百七十八条 双方当事人和解的,公安机关、人民检察院、人民法院应当听取当事人和其他有关人员的意见,对和解的自愿性、合法性进行审查,并主持制作和解协议书。
  第二百七十九条 对于达成和解协议的案件,公安机关可以向人民检察院提出从宽处理的建议。人民检察院可以向人民法院提出从宽处罚的建议;对于犯罪情节轻微,不需要判处刑罚的,可以作出不起诉的决定。人民法院可以依法对被告人从宽处罚。
第三章 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿、死亡案件违法所得的没收程序
  第二百八十条 对于贪污贿赂犯罪、恐怖活动犯罪等重大犯罪案件,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿,在通缉一年后不能到案,或者犯罪嫌疑人、被告人死亡,依照刑法规定应当追缴其违法所得及其他涉案财产的,人民检察院可以向人民法院提出没收违法所得的申请。
  公安机关认为有前款规定情形的,应当写出没收违法所得意见书,移送人民检察院。
  没收违法所得的申请应当提供与犯罪事实、违法所得相关的证据材料,并列明财产的种类、数量、所在地及查封、扣押、冻结的情况。
  人民法院在必要的时候,可以查封、扣押、冻结申请没收的财产。
  第二百八十一条 没收违法所得的申请,由犯罪地或者犯罪嫌疑人、被告人居住地的中级人民法院组成合议庭进行审理。
  人民法院受理没收违法所得的申请后,应当发出公告。公告期间为六个月。犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的近亲属和其他利害关系人有权申请参加诉讼,也可以委托诉讼代理人参加诉讼。
  人民法院在公告期满后对没收违法所得的申请进行审理。利害关系人参加诉讼的,人民法院应当开庭审理。
  第二百八十二条 人民法院经审理,对经查证属于违法所得及其他涉案财产,除依法返还被害人的以外,应当裁定予以没收;对不属于应当追缴的财产的,应当裁定驳回申请,解除查封、扣押、冻结措施。
  对于人民法院依照前款规定作出的裁定,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的近亲属和其他利害关系人或者人民检察院可以提出上诉、抗诉。
  第二百八十三条 在审理过程中,在逃的犯罪嫌疑人、被告人自动投案或者被抓获的,人民法院应当终止审理。
  没收犯罪嫌疑人、被告人财产确有错误的,应当予以返还、赔偿。
第四章 依法不负刑事责任的精神病人的强制医疗程序
  第二百八十四条 实施暴力行为,危害公共安全或者严重危害公民人身安全,经法定程序鉴定依法不负刑事责任的精神病人,有继续危害社会可能的,可以予以强制医疗。
  第二百八十五条 根据本章规定对精神病人强制医疗的,由人民法院决定。
  公安机关发现精神病人符合强制医疗条件的,应当写出强制医疗意见书,移送人民检察院。对于公安机关移送的或者在审查起诉过程中发现的精神病人符合强制医疗条件的,人民检察院应当向人民法院提出强制医疗的申请。人民法院在审理案件过程中发现被告人符合强制医疗条件的,可以作出强制医疗的决定。
  对实施暴力行为的精神病人,在人民法院决定强制医疗前,公安机关可以采取临时的保护性约束措施。
  第二百八十六条 人民法院受理强制医疗的申请后,应当组成合议庭进行审理。
  人民法院审理强制医疗案件,应当通知被申请人或者被告人的法定代理人到场。被申请人或者被告人没有委托诉讼代理人的,人民法院应当通知法律援助机构指派律师为其提供法律帮助。
  第二百八十七条 人民法院经审理,对于被申请人或者被告人符合强制医疗条件的,应当在一个月以内作出强制医疗的决定。
  被决定强制医疗的人、被害人及其法定代理人、近亲属对强制医疗决定不服的,可以向上一级人民法院申请复议。
  第二百八十八条 强制医疗机构应当定期对被强制医疗的人进行诊断评估。对于已不具有人身危险性,不需要继续强制医疗的,应当及时提出解除意见,报决定强制医疗的人民法院批准。
  被强制医疗的人及其近亲属有权申请解除强制医疗。
  第二百八十九条 人民检察院对强制医疗的决定和执行实行监督。
附 则
  第二百九十条 军队保卫部门对军队内部发生的刑事案件行使侦查权。
  对罪犯在监狱内犯罪的案件由监狱进行侦查。
  军队保卫部门、监狱办理刑事案件,适用本法的有关规定。
 
信息发布时间:2013-11-21 17:28:15 浏览: